Saturday, 16 January 2021

Welcome.

Welcome to Kediri.

By introducing the name Bambang Sunarno authors also introduce Kediri city as well as the historic birthplace and original culinary style Kediri, East Java, Indonesia.
This blog was established by Bambang Sunarno with the purpose of information, communication and knowledge.
In the town of Kediri, there are several historic sites and some of the history of Kediri.

Attractions including  :


Selomangleng cave.

Selomangleng cave.

Maskumambang lake.

Maskumambang lake.

Maria Lourdes grotto Kediri.


Maria Lourdes grotto Kediri.

Maria Lourdes cave has been known to tourists, and is known by the name Puh Sarang Church Kediri. The tourists always visit every holiday or there is an opportunity to visit with family Kediri, while Maria Lourdes grotto is a site that explains in detail the crucifixion of Jesus and also used for the followers of the Christian ritual.

Dolo Waterfall Kediri.

Dolo Waterfall Kediri.

Waterfall Dolo very attractive to newcomers from abroad or locally to enjoy the beauty of the high fountain and splashing in the gentle breeze and feel fresh.

If you want to Kelud. 

the road to the mountain kelud hot water.

Please contact the Travel Agents are available in the town of Kediri and you will get a place to take you.


culinary seller on the street Dhoho kediri.

When you visit in the evening there is a culinary providers Doho line the streets until the evening at 24.00, and for the guests do not have to worry, because every time you come there is always the hotels were good and satisfying.
Thank you for reading this article. Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno. sunarnobambang86@gmail.com
author:
http://schema.org/Personal.
https://plus.google.com/105319704331231770941.
name: Bambang Sunarno.
http://primadonablog.blogspot.com/p/welcome.html
DatePublished: 27 September 2019 at 17:02
Bambang Sunarno signature.
Tags: Welcome.
Code : 7MHPNPADAEFW

Posted by: Bambang Sunarno
www.Primo.com Updated at: 17:02

Sunday, 27 January 2019

Hirudotherapy treatment using leeches.


 Leeches

Leeches are ' worms ' with suckers on each end. Leeches can be divided in a variety of sizes, from the size of half an inch to ten inches in length, there are leeches color brown or black color. There are some that eat decaying plants. Others are parasites, sucking the blood and other animal tissues.
blood sucking leeches in two ways : using a leech proboscis to puncture the skin or using three jaws and millions of tiny teeth. Leeches live almost anywhere there is water origin. Leeches find their prey by detecting skin oils, blood, heat or carbon dioxide even when the prey breathes.
Leeches do not often eat , this is because the leeches suck in large amounts of blood when eating.
Doctors often use leeches in the past to draw blood. Leeches are also used to perform operations and cutting hair. When the barber finished the operation,
she would take a bloody bandage and wrap around the pole to show that he was doing surgery. That's how the origin of the red and white pole circling the barber.
Now maggots and leeches are used for different reasons . Scientists are studying the saliva of leeches. They believe the substances that stop or prevent blood clots that someday could be used in humans. The researchers also identified several medical compounds that can be developed from the saliva of leeches.
The properties of anticoagulant and clot - digesting these substances makes them potentially useful as a drug for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as heart attack and stroke . Leeches can be " milked " for their secretions without being harmed, and continues to do research the possibility of engineering synthetic leech saliva. But it still used leeches to suck blood.
Doctors now turn to leeches to help restore blood circulation to grafted tissue and reattached and toes.
For example : microsurgeons at a Boston hospital used leeches to save the ears of a 5 year old boy who had been bitten by a dog died . The leech can remove all solid blood to allow normal circulation to return to the network , thus preventing gangrene from scratch .
At this time , hundreds of thousands of leeches are sold in the U.S. to hospitals , clinics and individuals the European market , much bigger and millions of leeches are sold every year .

Hirudotherapy.

Hirudotherapy is treatment using medical leeches . This type of therapy is known from extreme antiquity and is still alive today . This fact shows effectiveness in healing various diseases . Currently Hirudotherapy method approved by many countries .

Hirudotherapy is treatment using medical leeches

Great experience using medicinal leeches in medical purpose kept up for centuries With the development of science covert action mechanism described leech salivary glands , are biologically active substances included in it was introduced to the public , the influence of leeches on the particular structure of a living organism has been investigated . Some medical forms are made on the basis of biologically active substances from the salivary glands of leeches and work on the creation of a new substance that is by doing a modern Hirudotherapy different from the old-fashioned because now we do not use the wild leeches , instead we use leeches that live in the wild , especially where they are in a natural condition that dirty , we currently use a leech only once .
The advantages are obvious and absolute safety Hirudotherapy checked on thousands of years of human experience and not cause doubts . One of the first substance that is found in the salivary glands of medicinal leeches is hirudin , a substance that thins the blood clotting process , anticoagulating as destabilaza fermentation , ingibitors of plazmine , callecrein of plasmine and others .
Factors diffusion - ferments of gialuronidaza , collagenaza , appressing factors mediators of pain - cininaza , antisclerous factors are also investigated . Thus , medicinal leeches are manufacturing biologically active substances . The result of the action of biologically active substances on living organisms are ;
- Normalization and improvement of capillary circulation ;
- Declare antiinflammatory effects ;
- Antistressful and adaptogene effect ;
- Immunostimulants and immunomodulating effects ;
- Anesthesia ;
- Anticoagulation ;
- Antibacterial Effect ;
- Improvement of the endocellular exhange and realization of this mechanism has both local and general character .
The existence of skin-visceral connection with the organs are definitely famous. biologically active substances act to organ for blood -sucking leeches drug action through Viens. This prompted an increase in blood circulation in specific organs, making trombolitic , anti-inflammatory , immunostimulant action , improve nutrition of tissues , strengthen the immune network . It is impossible for all the diseases that can be treated by using Hirudotherapy , contra - indications with Hirudotherphy is hemophilia , pregnancy , anemia , hypotonia .
Hirudotherapy can be applied to any disease known at this time . It can be used as an independent method of treatment and in a complex with other people to know . Doctors know exactly how difficult it is to struggle with chronic inflammatory diseases. The problem is in all types of clinical presentation of the disease organism protection mechanisms are universal-emission inflammatory mediators, vazoconstrictors , apireties and some other biologically active substances into the blood . Everything comes to the aspirations of living organisms to limit the nidus of inflammation by a decrease in blood circulation and capillary permeability - network , the creation of a shaft with conjunctive tissue inflammation and cellular structure and mode of temperature in the area . Given as a result of the concentration of the drug for instance an antibiotic in the nidus of inflammation is much lower than in the blood . Increasing doses of chemical drugs do not solve the problem because of excessive lead to allergies and side effects in other organs ( liver, kidney, bone marrow, glands Endocrin ). As a result, found many problems; disbacteriosis , hepatitis , nephropathy , immune deficiency conditions , but chronic inflammation problem for a given patient is not resolved . Here is to remember about Hirudotherapy . Containing biologically active substances in leech saliva glands can restore blood circulation in the nidus of inflammation , ischemia remove organs , giving the exchange capillary network and therefore can perform chemical transport of drugs into the nidus of inflammation , improve immune protection and tissue regeneration . In such conditions the use of the same chemical drugs is possible in smaller doses . These factors do not limit the ability to influence the nidus of inflammation Hirudotherapy . The problem is that in the salivary glands of medicinal leeches there are some substances that are able to withstand bacterias.One growth substances studied were the most hirudin . In experiments on animals and bactericidal action of hirudin has been proven bacteriastatic . The main reason of drug action on thrombophlebitis hirudin example is its bactericidal properties . That's why it became clear that the use of leeches in both aseptic inflammation and the inflammation caused by a bacterial agent helps the organism . Owned medicinal leech salivary gland secrets to penetrate the " axis demarcacional " inflammation is deternimed by the action of a factor of-the - enzyme gialuronidaza penetration . This enzyme is able to act unactivate gialuron acid which is a cementing substance for connective tissue .
feaeture sort Hirudotherapy essentially distinquishes of other treatment methods .
In addition to the above mentioned effects Hirudotherapy it is necessary to remember about the biological influences such as irritation of the active points in zones.It reflex has been long known that leeches prefer to sit in certain areas of the skin that correspond to points of ancient Chinese method of treatment - needleacupuncture . In Hirudotherapy results we receive in the treatment effect is not only due to the action of biologically active substances ' secret leeches , but also in a way that affects the reflex zones .
For example, in the treatment of hypertonic disease biologically active points and cervical occipital regions used and the influence of these points give , vasodilation and hipotenzive effects.The other anesthetic action of the leech is a leech exhaust taking.One blood of 5 to 10 ml of blood .. The bleeding lasts for several hours ( approximately 12-24 hours ) and patients lose about 20-30 ml blood.Thus due to the influence of the leech 5 simulteneously patients 100-250 ml of blood loss and blood this way has the advantage of taking no doubt before taking blood from a vein . Taking blood from the organs associated with pain lasted for about an hour . Therefore , creating conditions of many lasts hours and venous drainage and stable fit of certain areas , in certain areas there is usually improved microcirculation , nutrition network , mobile exchange , venous stagnation usually liquidated and organ ischemia usually eliminated.After course of treatment consists of 5-10 procedures using leeches 4-10 good clinical effect is marked.At cardiovascular pathology circulatory decompensation ( ishemic heart disease , defect intimate ) that points to the heart of authentic leech reduce elevated arterial pressure , leading to reduce stagnation in heart , for increased ventilation of the lungs and heart demolition . The effect comes in direct hipotenzive results and anticoagulating action of hirudin and not a smaller degree by reducing peripheral resistance . In the cardiovascular system disease Hirudotherapy play a special role.It easy to find an explanation for the attention to the conditions mentioned above properties.Besides note hirudin ability to affect blood clotting . Fluid and blood clotting conditions provided by the functional interation of two systems of organisms : anticlotting.The anticlotting support system and blood clotting in a liquid state , protecting it from freezing , which both provide protection from bleeding in violation of the integrity of blood vessels . For patients with ischemic heart disease , hypertension , for parents , for patients with diabetes is a major problem as angiopathy and vessel atherosclerosis - results ; atherosclerosis anyone integrety violation of vessels.which blood supply and turn on the system clotting.In terrible results show most of the heart disease and arterial thrombosis in vessels is an important vital organs. The output of thrombosis is heart infarction , brain , lungs brinding sometimes deadly results . Stimulation fibrinolitic activity and anticlotting systems of the blood in disease , the suppression of the formation trombs , and reduce blood viscosity is needed both with medical purpose and for preventive maintenance of ischemic conditions . The mechanism of action of hirudin on thrombin oppressive investigated . hirudin blocks the action of thrombin and the latter loses its properties , does not promote the transition of fibrinogen to fibrin. Besides secret saliva of medicinal leeches block an attachement anitial of platelets and actually press them on the surface collagenus aggregetion . Thus , the secret saliva of leeches and the influence of the drug on blood plasma cellular factor clotting. In much research writer is indicated that after the leech is no normalization parameter assignment separate from coagulogramme - on anitial combination of hyper coagulation system activates and vice versa anticoagulating is becoming more active . Similar effects were not accepted even when we use a known anticoagulant such as heparin and aspirin . We must add the effects lipotropal enzymes from the salivary glands of leeches which consists in the ability of drugs to influence on blood lipids . At the beginning of this century, some scientists expressed the assumption that the development of atherosclerosis can be prevented by applying medicinal leeches . In the 1984-1989 experiment proved that the introduction of long- secret introvenous salivary glands of medicinal leeches to mice that were presented in conditions very last atherosclerosis has been a reduction in lung lipids and abdominal arteries . It is known that lipoproteids low density and low density lipoproteids greatly promoted the development of atherosclerosis , but the high density lipoproteids antisclerous protective factors play a role . On hearing the disease there ishemic redistribution of cholesterol in the different classes of lipoproteids density . Quantity in lipoproteids it raises low-density and very low density lipoproteids reduced resulting in high lipoproteids . In this group had increased levels of lipid authentic general , triglicerids , cholesterol on artery walls . Many writers are engaged in this sign authentically reduction problem triglicerids and cholesterol in the blood after a few sessions Hirudotherapy . This makes it possible to draw the conclusion that the secret lipotropic ensymes leech saliva drug can be used in the atherosclerotic vessel defects regardless of the primary localization of atherosclerosis . Perhaps the effect of " rejuvenation " can look after emergence Hirudotherapy shine in the eyes , skin elasticity improvement , flush appearance , loss of face mask fatigue in patients , strong sort of patient . That's possible because in this case we are dealing with an increase mechanism Vasku.

The nature of Leech Therapy.


The nature of Leech Therapy

leech mouth.

structure leech

Therapeutic properties Hirudotherapy ;

* Common reflexogenic : hypotension
* Bleeds : immunopotentiating
* Internal decongestion : bacteriostatic
* Anticoagulants : anti - inflammatory
* Protective antithrombotic : Local anti - edema
* Thrombolytic : analgesic
* Removal of microcirculation disorders : antiatherosclerotic
* Anti - ischemic : elimination of abnormal interactions between the system.

Doctor Miracle called leech .

Applied drugs have hundreds of years of experience in the fight against human disease . Tens of thousands of different mixtures , tablets , vaccines , drugs , etc. have been created - and they are all human treatment effects . And why professional doctors again and again apply to traditional methods of treatment rather old drug tested by our ancestors ? There is no secret that ... All of these methods are based on natural root . That is why we applied the medical center fashioned method " of treatment for hundreds of diseases ".

Hirudotherapy .

Hirudotherapy ( from Latin leech Hirudo - ) is known since ancient times . Along with general bloodletting , has been regarded as a necessary drug in the treatment of different diseases .
Secrets of the medical leech salivary gland contains more than 100 bioactive substances and has anti -inflammatory action , bacteriostatic , analgesic , completing , it eliminates the microcirculation disorders , vascular permeability restore damaged tissues and organs , eliminating hypoxia ( lack of oxygen ) , reducing blood pressure , improving the activity of the immune system , detoxifies the organism , releases from threatening complications , such as infarction , stroke , improving bioenergy status of the organism .
How confidential leech injection is very simple : placed on the skin to bite the skin , then the leech saliva secret falls into the bloodstream and go to the focus of the disease through the vessel .
In medicine we use hirudoreflexotherapy put leeches on reflexogenic point as " needle Life ".

Indications for treatment with medicinal leeches :

* Cardiovascular diseases , including essential hypertension and ischemic
   diseases , diseases phlebogene of the lower extremities ;
* Chronic bronchitis , pneumonia , bronchial asthma ;
* Digestive tract diseases ( hepatitis , cholecystitis , pancreatitis , gastric ulcer ) ;
* ENT Disease ;
* Paradontosis and other dental diseases ;
* Urological diseases ;
* Male sterility ;
* Skin diseases ( neurodermatitis , psoriasis , eczema , herpes ) ;
* Gynecological disorders ( commissural process in the small pelvis ,
* Female infertility ,
* Adnexitis chronic , parametritis ,
* Endometriosis , fibromastopathy ) ;
* Systemic diseases ( rheumatoid arthritis , systemic lupus erythematosus ,
   scleroderma ) ;
* Osteochondrosis and radiculitis ;
* Eye diseases , including glaucoma ;
* Infantile cerebral paralysis ( ICP ) and other diseases .
* Therapy Hirudotherapy properties :

Blood shortage.

Leech therapy is always associated with a certain degree of blood loss , which is clinically irrelevant in most cases . In clinical trials by Michalsen , losses mean hemoglobin 0.7 mg / dL of blood loss , and clinically relevant not occur in any of the patients studied . However , there is a strong afterbleeding isolated observations with a decrease in hemoglobin value , especially in cases where the leech was accidentally applied directly to the superficial veins . According to the Essen-Mitte Hospital, clinically relevant decrease in hemoglobin (> 3 mg/dL) occurred after leech therapy in two patients , one of whom required blood transfusion ( after being treated with six leeches for osteoarthritis of the knee ) . Asked retrospective , one patient stated that he was , in his opinion , prolonged bleeding injuries in the past . In other cases , afterbleeding from leech bites lasted for 36 hours and must be stopped by skin sutures . extensive coagulation test is then performed but did not reveal any specific coagulation disorders . Prior to the occurrence of abnormal bleeding anamnestically seem important , and patients should be specifically questioned about the incident . Anticoagulants are drugs simultaneously important to see . If low-dose aspirin is prescribed in combination with other platelet aggregation inhibitors ( clopidogrel , Iscover , Plavix ) or high -dose fish oil ( Omacor ) , a small number of leeches ( 3-4 ) should be used initially. blood counts should always be obtained before the start of leech therapy. To reliably prevent the loss of the relevant amount of blood , the leech therapist should never use more than 12 twisters in a single treatment session.

Impaired Wound Healing , superinfection , and Allergies .

Once the leech drops off , the edge of the wound three branches generally swell during 12-48 hours accompanied by feelings of local tension , hot , and flushed . Small blood spots ( ecchymoses ) develop under the skin around the bite of a leech . larger collection of blood rarely develops . Such as superficial bruises , blood spots initially reddish purple , then turn yellowish , and finally disappeared in about two weeks . Localized inflammation , sometimes with papulous height of the bite site , is a relatively common problem that is often accompanied by itching . This inflammation usually subsides quickly when the ice and left . The cause of this disorder is unknown wound - healing . improper handling , especially early termination afterbleeding from wounds , leech head squeezed with pliers , strong deletion of leeches before finished eating , and the failure to keep the animals in freshwater , has frequently been implicated as a potential cause . However , it has also been observed to occur right after leech treatment in isolated cases . Theoretically, Aeromonas hydrophila local infection with a potential cause , but so far there is no evidence of microbiological presence of Aeromonas hydrophila in the wound fluid of affected patients . more severe local inflammation is most often caused by secondary wound contamination or irritation due to mechanical irritation , such as scratching and rubbing . Patients should be informed of the overall importance of protecting the wound from mechanical irritation . According to survey hospitals , more severe local inflammation occurs in three isolated cases : One patient developed erysipelas and two lymphangitis being developed . All cases resolved rapidly in response to treatment with cephalosporin antibiotics and / or gyrase inhibitors . Obedience localization contraindications and recommendations to minimize the risk of local inflammation . In case it is not clear where the progressive and painful skin redness develops , especially if it is associated with increased temperature , the leech therapist should know to administer antibiotics immediately . Pseudolymphomas may occur in rare cases , this is caused by efflorescences papulous reaction to arthropod bites leech . Currently , no data are used to assess the exact frequency of these side effects . To our knowledge , a total of three documented and confirmed cases have been reported .
It is difficult to distinguish the wound - healing secondary disturbance of potential allergic reactions . precise data on the frequency of allergic reactions to the bite of a leech is not available . Local itching , a common side effect of leeching , should not be construed as an allergic reaction . allergic reactions such as urticaria firmly while and locodistant swelling have been reported in a few isolated cases . However , local symptoms , reflex erythema and urticarial dermographism psychovegetatively unstable individuals have been studied more frequently . An older case reports describe the occurrence of short -term anaphylactic shock after six leeches applied to the temple area . Some experts manage systemic antihistamines leech therapy for the treatment of localized allergic reaction to ( empirical ) good success . However , response rates for both antihistamines are not evidence per se of allergens : A certain level of placebo response to antihistamines should also be taken into account . Which may be boosting existing antibiotics allergic to leech therapy is also proposed in case reports .
When interpreting a local reaction that occurs after leech therapy , it is important to remember that the protease in the saliva of leeches release various types of mediators nonimmunological . Furthermore , the reaction may be exacerbated by factors psychovegetative . All in all , there are only a few cases in which a relationship between leech therapy and the occurrence of allergic reactions has been proven with reasonable certainty . However , potential allergic reactions occur after exposure to any foreign protein . Contact dermatitis has also been observed after the use of leeches ointment .
Short-term reactive swelling and / or tenderness of the lymph nodes proximal have occasionally been reported , but most often in patients with delayed wound healing . This phenomenon has most often develops in the groin area after application of leeches for the treatment of knee joint, hip joint, or varicose veins. Quickly and smoothly loss swollen lymph nodes all of which are described in case reports.

Blood poisoning .

Sepsis due to systemic infection with Aeromonas hydrophila has been repeatedly observed after application of leeches in reconstructive surgery indications , but not in any of the other relevant fields used . This supports the conclusion that the risk of Aeromonas hydrophila sepsis increased only in patients with severe underlying disease or immunosuppression , which often occur in surgical candidates for leech therapy . Therefore we recommend concurrent antibiotic treatment for all surgical patients receiving leech therapy . In the rest of the field of use , the primary antibiotic therapy does not seem to be required in accordance with the current state of knowledge , but must be considered relevant contraindications.

Transmission of Infectious Diseases .

At this time , medicinal leeches are generally only used once . Therefore , there is no risk of indirect transfer of infectious diseases from one patient to another . Aeromonas hydrophila primary infection with clinically relevant only if the leech goes for transplant surgery . Concurrent antibiotic treatment therefore recommended for prophylaxis of infection in these cases ( see above ) . Transmission of pathogenic bacteria or other viruses to humans in the context of leech therapy has not been observed so far.

Scars.

If allowed , the former is usually rapid leech shrunk to hardly visible or invisible signs three small branches disappear completely within one to three weeks . However , if the impaired wound healing wounds due to scratching or secondary infections , scars will remain visible for a long time significantly . Papulous skin changes over the last few months have also been reported in isolated cases . In one case , a " reaction to arthropod " permanent also been reported after treatment leeches . Significant scarring may occur especially when leeches are applied to
areas with thin skin and a thin layer of subcutaneous tissue or joint area where the skin is constant movement . Wearing tight clothing after treatment , for example, around the knee , can also result in scar formation .
For aesthetic reasons , the control is recommended when using leeches in the face or in part apparent and other relevant cosmetics from the body . Here , we re- emphasize that it is necessary to thoroughly inform patients about the potential risks of treatment , including scar tissue , and to obtain written informed consent from the patient before going ahead with the treatment .

Safety and Side Effects Leech Therapy .

leech therapy rarely ever lead to serious complications . Local pain medication and short-term side effects itching usual . Prior to treatment , patients should be advised accordingly and asked to sign a consent form that describes the side effects that are relevant ( see Appendix ) . Prevalence data from systematic and prospective studies are only available for a few different side effects of leech therapy . The following analysis is compiled using data from published efficacy studies and case reports , as well as from personal observation . Quality control data on adverse events documented in more than 1000 cases treated at the Hospital Essen-Mitte, especially for the treatment of degenerative joint disease, is also included in the analysis .

Local Pain During Treatment .

Local pain perception varies leeching . Most patients describe the local dragging pain that occurs immediately after leech bites and lasts for about one to five minutes . Such as saliva more and more introduced into the network , the anesthetic effect of leech saliva comes into force . The intensity of the pain from the bite of the leech and the first phase is generally described as a light meal or ignored ( depending on the individual 's pain threshold ) , but some patients find the pain is more intense , similar to a wasp sting . Perceived intensity of leech bites varies from one person to another . subjective pain ratings ranged from " hardly noticeable " to " mild " ( similar to stinging nettle pain ) to " similar to a wasp sting " ( very rare ) . Sensation ( or sometimes a bit strong ) rhythmic normally attract little attention for one to three minutes after the start of feeding .
Does stimulation of the same intensity exactly considered painful or not perceived at all of course depends on the personality of the individual , but also depends on the concentration of the people on the leech or leech therapy attitudes toward . Individual leech jaw size , bite force , the intensity of suction , and the volume and composition of leech saliva also plays a role . Many people never even notice the bites of leeches , for example when they are bitten under the water , while their attention is focused on something else . Often , patients are more anxious that focuses on getting ready for the leech bite , the higher the perception of pain . Leech therapist should keep in mind during the preparation phase and during treatment . A diversion can often help . It is also useful to allow the patient to " get to know " "his" or " her " to convince the leech and leech treatment of patients with a confident manner . If latex gloves must be worn for health reasons , the leech therapist does not have to use forceps on leeches . Many patients lose their aversion to leeches when they show how they swim and elegant beautiful colored patterns on their backs shown . Many people report that the patient's attitude toward the leech changes from negative to positive after a positive treatment experience . Most of the concerns are projected to leech is based on ancient fears rather than on objective facts . We also recommend that kill leeches in front of the patient . If leeches had to be killed after treatment , the animals should be frozen and placed in a solution of 90 % alcohol a few days later .

Itching local .

Transient leech bites itch in place within the first few days after treatment is very common and should not be mistaken for an allergic reaction . In a study of the efficacy of leech therapy in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee , approximately 70 % of patients treated with leeches developed local itching that lasts an average of two days . Transient itching occurs at a frequency that is comparable , but the level of intensity is strong in many cases in which leeches were applied to the more peripheral joints , such as the thumb , but at lower levels after treatment of large joints and vertebrogenic zone , according to empirical assessment . Patients can be advised prior to treatment side effects . Patients should not scratch the bites of leeches , especially after the initial wound closure , because it often delays wound healing . We recommend local cooling solution ( curd wraps, cold moist wrap, wrap vinegar ). For more severe itching, antipruritic commercial products ( eg , ointment Fenistil ) or oral antihistamines may be used . Some experts prescribe oral antihistamines leech therapy to patients in conjunction with a known history of a severe reaction ( itching and redness of the skin ) for leech therapy . Isolated reports describe brief relapse hives are in certain situations ( eg , high temperature ) for several months after an otherwise uneventful course of leech therapy .

Hypotension and Vasovagal attack.

Patients with a history of developing vasovagal attack or syncope ( fainting ) before other invasive treatment methods also can develop a reaction like that at the start of or during leech therapy . One survey showed that vasovagal attack occurs in one of 1000 leech treatment performed in our hospital . Therefore , the leech therapist should always ask about the patient's prior history of vasovagal attack or pass out before procedures such as blood sampling or acupuncture . To guard against vasovagal attack , the patient should drink plenty of fluids before and during treatment , and treatment should always be done in a soothing environment while the patient is lying down . Two cases of hypotension and syncope outpatient Vasodepressor following leech therapy were also observed . Both patients known arterial hypertension and three antihypertensive drugs , which they continue to take as normal . A few hours after leech therapy , two patients developed a brief attack of benign syncope . It is important to remember that leeching has known antihypertensive effects when treating patients on antihypertensive drugs . Patients should drink plenty of fluids . If there is a strong flow of blood from leech bites , the patient's blood pressure should be monitored and antihypertensive medications should be adjusted as needed .
Prior to treatment , patients should be advised accordingly and asked to sign a consent form that describes the side effects that are relevant ( see Appendix ) . Prevalence data from systematic and prospective studies are only available for a few different side effects of leech therapy . The following analysis is compiled using data from published efficacy studies and case reports , as well as from personal observation . Quality control data on adverse events documented in more than 1000 cases treated at the Hospital Essen - Mitte , especially for the treatment of degenerative joint disease , is also included in the analysis .

Local Pain During Treatment .

Local pain perception varies leeching. Most patients describe the local dragging pain that occurs immediately after leech bites and lasts for about one to five minutes . Such as saliva more and more introduced into the network , the anesthetic effect of leech saliva comes into force . The intensity of the pain from the bite of the leech and the first phase is generally described as a light meal or ignored ( depending on the individual 's pain threshold ) , but some patients find the pain is more intense , similar to a wasp sting . Perceived intensity of leech bites varies from one person to another . subjective pain ratings ranged from " hardly noticeable " to " mild " ( similar to stinging nettle pain ) to " similar to a wasp sting " ( very rare ) . Sensation ( or sometimes a bit strong ) rhythmic normally attract little attention for one to three minutes after the start of feeding .
Does stimulation of the same intensity exactly considered painful or not perceived at all of course depends on the personality of the individual , but also depends on the concentration of the people on the leech or leech therapy attitudes toward . Individual leech jaw size , bite force , the intensity of suction , and the volume and composition of leech saliva also plays a role . Many people never even notice the bites of leeches , for example when they are bitten under the water , while their attention is focused on something else . Often , patients are more anxious that focuses on getting ready for the leech bite , the higher the perception of pain . Leech therapist should keep in mind during the preparation phase and during treatment . A diversion can often help . It is also useful to allow the patient to " get to know " "his" or " her " to convince the leech and leech treatment of patients with a confident manner . If latex gloves must be worn for health reasons , the leech therapist does not have to use forceps on leeches . Many patients lose their aversion to leeches when they show how they swim and elegant beautiful colored patterns on their backs shown . Many people report that the patient's attitude toward the leech changes from negative to positive after a positive treatment experience . Most of the concerns are projected to leech is based on ancient fears rather than on objective facts . We also recommend that kill leeches in front of the patient . If leeches had to be killed after treatment , the animals should be frozen and placed in a solution of 90 % alcohol a few days later .

Itching local .

Transient leech bites itch in place within the first few days after treatment is very common and should not be mistaken for an allergic reaction . In a study of the efficacy of leech therapy in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee , approximately 70 % of patients treated with leeches developed local itching that lasts an average of two days . Transient itching occurs at a frequency that is comparable , but the level of intensity is strong in many cases in which leeches were applied to the more peripheral joints , such as the thumb , but at lower levels after treatment of large joints and vertebrogenic zone , according to empirical assessment . Patients can be advised prior to treatment side effects . Patients should not scratch the bites of leeches , especially after the initial wound closure , because it often delays wound healing . We recommend local cooling solution ( curd wraps, cold moist wrap, wrap vinegar ). For more severe itching, antipruritic commercial products ( eg , ointment Fenistil ) or oral antihistamines may be used . Some experts prescribe oral antihistamines leech therapy to patients in conjunction with a known history of a severe reaction ( itching and redness of the skin ) for leech therapy . Isolated reports describe brief relapse hives are in certain situations ( eg , high temperature ) for several months after an otherwise uneventful course of leech therapy .

Hypotension and Vasovagal attack .

Patients with a history of developing vasovagal attack or syncope ( fainting ) before other invasive treatment methods also can develop a reaction like that at the start of or during leech therapy . One survey showed that vasovagal attack occurs in one of 1000 leech treatment performed in our hospital . Therefore , the leech therapist should always ask about the patient's prior history of vasovagal attack or pass out before procedures such as blood sampling or acupuncture . To guard against vasovagal attack , the patient should drink plenty of fluids before and during treatment , and treatment should always be done in a soothing environment while the patient is lying down . Two cases of hypotension and syncope outpatient Vasodepressor following leech therapy were also observed . Both patients known arterial hypertension and three antihypertensive drugs , which they continue to take as normal . A few hours after leech therapy , two patients developed a brief attack of benign syncope . It is important to remember that leeching has known antihypertensive effects when treating patients on antihypertensive drugs . Patients should drink plenty of fluids . If there is a strong flow of blood from leech bites , the patient's blood pressure should be monitored and antihypertensive medications should be adjusted as needed .

Medicinal leeches .

Approximately 600 species of leeches have been identified to date , but only about 15 are used in the treatment . Leeches classified as " medicinal leeches " , Hirudo medicinalis , in the narrow sense has been used to treat patients for centuries .
The first documented account of the use of Hirudo medicinalis for medicinal purposes dates back to the time of Hippocrates . According to Sanskrit writings , Dhavantari , the father of Indian medicine , held nectar in one hand and a leech on the other hand . Leech therapy is also used in traditional Chinese medicine . Paintings of medicinal leeches have been found in the tombs of pharaohs . The Solomon Parables also describe leech treatment use in ancient medicine . Leech therapy in the treatment of Greece can be found in the poem by Nicandros Alexipharmacia . The Roman physician Galen classified leech terapy as a method to achieve a healthy balance . Avicenna also used leeches for healing aids. In the past leeches have proven the most effective treatment in many cases. Leeches were especially useful in the treatment of battle wounds . European countries in the 18th and 19th centuries imported over 100 million leeches every year to meet the high demand .
Currently , doctors use leeches for treating abscesses , painful joints , glaucoma , myasthenia , and to heal venous diseases and thrombosis . Medical leeches are used in plastic surgery , to improve brain circulation and for the treatment of infertility .
Common indications for leech therapy are :
inflammatory reaction
Heart Disease
Rheumatic Diseases
Tendovaginitis and Tendinitis
Venous Disease and Varicose Veins
arthrosis
arthritis
muscle tension
Antidyscratic therapy ( blood purification and regeneration ) of toxicoses and mental illness
Thrombosis and embolism
Passive congestions and spastic conditions
Vertebrogenic Pain Syndromes
Transudates and exudates
A simple principle lies at the heart of all miracles - Hirudo . During feeding, leeches secrete a complex mixture of different biologically and pharmacologically active ingredients into the wound . Hirudin is the best known component of leech saliva . Hirudin is sometimes used to describe all the active substances in leech saliva . In fact , hirudin only refer to a particular active substance in leech salive . Component of leech saliva drug effects in the host's body is :
* Hirudin : Inhibits blood coagulation by binding to thrombin
* Calin : Inhibits blood clots by blocking the binding of von factors
   Willebrand for collagen . Inhibit collagen - mediated platelet aggregation
* Destabilase : Monomerizing activities . Soluble fibrin . effects of thrombolytic
* Hirustasin : Inhibits kallikrein , trypsin , chymotrypsin , cathepsin G
   neutropholic
* Bdellins : Anti - inflammatory . Inhibit trypsin , plasmin , acrosin
* Hyaluronidase : Increasing the viscosity of the interstitial . antibiotic
* Tryptase inhibitors : Inhibits proteolytic enzymes of host mast cells
* Eglins : Anti - inflammatory. Inhibit the activity of alpha - chymotrypsin,
   chymase, substilisin, elastase, cathepsin G
   Inhibiting Factor Xa inhibitors : coagulation factor xa activity by forming
   equimolar complex
* Inhibitors : Complementary May possibly replace natural complement
   inhibitors if they lack
* Carboxypeptidase : A inhibitors Increases blood flow at the site of the bite
* Histaminelike : vasodilator substances . Increases blood flow at the site of the
   bite
* Acetylcholine : vasodilator
* Subsctance anesthesia : anesthesia

Effects leech bites .

Although some types of blood sucking leeches, not all species can bite,
only 90  % of their feed from decomposing bodies and open wounds of amphibians , reptiles, waterfowl, fish, and mammals ( including, but not limited to, humans ). A leech attaches when biting, and will remain attached to having a blood content. Because anticoagulant ( hirudin ) that leeches secrete , bites may bleed more than normal wound after the leech removed. Effect of anticoagulants will disappear a few hours after the leech is removed and the wound cleaned .
Leeches normally carry parasites in their digestive tract that can not survive in humans and do not pose a threat . However , bacteria , viruses , and parasites from previous blood sources can survive within a leech for months , and may be transmitted back to humans . A study found both HIV and hepatitis in African leeches from Cameroon . ( Hirudotherapy ethics therefore is always using leeches that had never been used )
Although some types of blood sucking leeches, not all species can bite, only 90% of their feed from decomposing bodies and open wounds of amphibians, reptiles, waterfowl, fish, and mammals (including, but not limited to, humans). A leech attaches when biting, and will remain attached to having a blood content. Because anticoagulant (hirudin) that leeches secrete, bites may bleed more than normal wound after the leech removed. Effect of anticoagulants will disappear a few hours after the leech is removed and the wound cleaned. Leeches normally carry parasites in their digestive tract that can not survive in humans and do not pose a threat. However, bacteria, viruses, and parasites from previous blood sources can survive within a leech for months, and may be transmitted back to humans.
A study found both HIV and hepatitis in African leeches from Cameroon. (Hirudotherapy ethics therefore is always using leeches that had never been used). Thank you for reading this article .
Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno. sunarnobambang86@gmail.com
author:
http://schema.org/Personal.
https://plus.google.com/105319704331231770941.
name: Bambang Sunarno.
http://primadonablog.blogspot.com/2014/01/hirudotherapy-treatment-using-leeches.html
DatePublished: January 27, 2014 at 11:30
Code : 7MHPNPADAEFW
Tag ; Leeches, Treatment.

Posted by: Bambang Sunarno
www.Primo.com Updated at: 11:30

Saturday, 6 February 2016

About Beluntas.


Beluntas.
Beluntas is a much branched shrub, finely ribbed, soft and fluffy. Generally, this plant is grown as a hedge or even growing wild, can reach 3 meters if not pruned, so it is often planted as a fence yard. Beluntas can grow in arid areas in the soil is rocky and hard, on the lowland to highland at an altitude of 1000 meters above sea level, it requires quite a bit of sunlight or shade, and propagation can be done by stem cuttings on the trunk is quite old. Name area: beluntas (Malay), baluntas, baruntas (Sunda), luntas (Java), baluntas (Madura), lamutasa (Makassar), lenabou (East), while foreign names for plants beluntas is Luan Yi (China), Phatpai ( Vietnam), and Marsh fleabane (England). Beluntas simplicia name is Plucheacea folium (leaf), Plucheacea radix (root).

Morphology characteristics.

Leaves short-stemmed, located intermittent, sunsang egg-shaped, tapering circular ends. Edge serrated leaves, bright green, flowers out at the ends of branches and axillary, flower-shaped hump, handled or sitting, and purple. The fruit longkah somewhat shaped tops, colored brown with white angled.

Nature and Efficacy.

Beluntas leaves contain alkaloids, tannins, sodium, essential oils, calcium, flafonoida, magnesium, and phosphorus. While flafonoida and roots contain tannin. Beluntas leaves a distinctive aromatic smell and taste bitter and refreshing, nutritious to increase appetite, help digestion, shed sweat, eliminate body odor and bad breath, reduce fever, bone pain, back pain, and vaginal discharge; whereas beluntas roots efficacious as a laxative sweat and conditioning. Beluntas leaves can also be consumed as lalaban or steamed. Beluntas leaf essential oil content of 5% can inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, whereas the 20% level to inhibit bacterial growth Escherechia coli.

Benefits Leaves Beluntas For Herbal Medicine.

Beluntas leaf which is a small plant that is widely found in areas close to the coast. These plants live in a way that can easily grow wild and although not intentionally cultivated. Utilization beluntas leaves are widely used as a herbal remedy is quite powerful. Here are some benefits beluntas leaves for treatment:

1. Reduce Rheumatic sore.

Beluntas leaf properties it also can be used to reduce muscle pains in the body. Stiff often happens, will certainly be very torturing yourself. If having a stiff problem, then you should drink a decoction of leaves beluntas 3 times in 1 day.

2. Eliminate Body Odor.

Body odor is certainly a very annoying problem, especially for social life. Neither the women or men, would be very insecure when experiencing body odor problem. From now on not to worry because the leaves beluntas can be the solution of this problem. Drinking water regularly beluntas leaf decoction, then the body odor that happens to be resolved. Other herbal ingredients that are also able to overcome body odor such as:

3. Eliminating Whitish.

Beluntas leaves commonly known as a wild plant, widely used to treat vaginal discharge that is commonly experienced by women. Beluntas leaves can make whiteness becomes stop completely within a fairly short. In addition beluntas leaves, white turmeric benefits can also be used to treat vaginal discharge.

Other uses of the leaf beluntas very useful for women is because the properties that can make menstrual pain that is common to be reduced.

4. Eliminate Bad Breath.

The problem of bad breath can also be a constraint, especially for those who often conversing with others. If you experience this problem, it is advisable to drink water leaves beluntas or use as a mouthwash to overcome this bad breath. A number of benefits of fruits are also consumed to reduce bad breath such as:

5. Treat Pain Waist.

Many people who experience frequent back pain. This would greatly disrupt life, if it is constantly happening. Beluntas leaf decoction has pain relieving properties, especially in the waist area is. In some people, hip pain will greatly interfere with daily activities, and how to overcome them is to take a decoction of the leaves beluntas regularly. In addition, the benefits of water will also help reduce the risk of back pain that can occur.

6. Overcome Rheumatism.

For parents who have rheumatic problems, can try to consume the herb leaves beluntas. Usefulness can eliminate a wide range of pain, it can also be used to treat rheumatism.


7. Overcoming Stomach Bloating.

Beluntas leaves turns also be a solution when subjected to flatulence, so the discomfort of flatulence may soon disappear by drinking a decoction of the leaves beluntas.

To get this beluntas leaves, actually can be found easily in the area not far from the beach. Beluntas leaves are in the area and live in the wild, although only grows wild in the wild, but do not need to doubt the benefits of this beluntas leaves. Consumption beluntas leaves regularly to the perceived complaints can be reduced. But it is also necessary medical supervision when taking this traditional herb.


As Antibacterial ingredients and antioxidants.

Leaves beluntas according to research results have antibacterial and antioxidant function and have the potential to be developed as a preservative of food and medicine.

Beluntas (Pluchea indica L.), the name of this plant may be rare to hear. But, actually form this plant is not seasing name. If we look carefully, it is almost certain people will immediately know it as a plant that is often found on the home page, because it is often used as a hedge plant.

Beluntas the shrubs erect, woody, branched, with height can reach two meters. Single leaf, round egg shape, pointed tip, fluffy, young leaves are yellowish green and after the old pale green and leaf length from 3.8 to 6.4 cm. It grows wild on the ground with high humidity; in some places in West Java this plant is used as a hedge and a barrier between the mounds on the farm. Some areas in Indonesia the name beluntas with different names like baluntas (Madura), Luntas (Central Java), and Lamutasa (Makassar).

Beluntas leaf is traditionally used as a remedy for eliminating body odor, drugs reduces heat, cough medicine, and diarrhea. Beluntas boiled leaves are excellent for treating skin diseases. Besides, it leaves beluntas also often consumed by people as vegetables.

Their traditional information from people who have long used beluntas leaves as one of the medicinal plants to encourage researchers to conduct various studies in order to scientifically prove his usefulness. In this paper will be tested for exposure to two studies in the form of utilization beluntas leaf extract as an antibacterial component and essential oils as antioxidants.


Beluntas as antibacterial leaf extract.

To get beluntas leaf extract to be dried, subsequent extraction. Extraction is done using hexane, the resulting residue extracted back with ethanol to extract the polar defatted with reflux method. Besides direct extraction using ethanol to extract the polar non defatted using the same method extracts for antibacterial activity test carried out on bacteria from the group of pathogens causing food poisoning sepertiEscherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus. Besides E. coli is a bacterium that causes gastrointestinal infection, while S. aureus is the bacteria that cause impetigo (swelling of the epidermal layer of the skin), furuncle (inflammation in the sub-cutaneous tissue), and the carbuncle (widespread inflammation and the hair follicles). Of the group of bacteria that cause food decay adalahPseudomonas fluorescens. Testing for antibacterial activity using the well diffusion method; the clear zone around the well demonstrated antibacterial activity. Davis Stout argues that the provisions of the antibacterial strength is as follows: the area 20 mm or more barrier means very strong, regional barriers to 10-20 mm (strong), 5 -10 mm (medium), and area constraints 5 mm or less (weak).

Table 1. Antimicrobial activity of leaf extract beluntas *
Bacteria (Extract Nondefatted) (Extract Defatted)
Escherichia coli (8.5 +/- 0.5) (7.0 +/- 0.4)
Salmonella typhi (10.2 +/- 0.4) (8.2 +/- 0.5)
Staphylococcus aureus (9.1 +/- 1.0) (7.1 +/- 0.6)
Bacillus cereus (8.4 +/- 0.7) (6.5 +/- 0.3)
Pseudomonas fluorescent (6.3 +/- 0.3) (5.5 +/- 0.3)

In the table above shows that the extract nondefatted show inhibitory activity higher than the defatted extract. If the data in the table associated with the provision of antibacterial powers proposed by Stout, then the antibacterial powers contained in the extract of leaves beluntas into the category of "moderate" (included in the range of 5-10 mm). Although the antibacterial strength in the medium category, can be understood when the leaves beluntas efficacious cure various diseases caused by bacterial infection.

Leaves beluntas as antioxidants.

Research conducted by the Sri Widyawati Paini (2005) tried to examine the antioxidant activity of leaf beluntas. Beluntas leaves extracted using ethanol by soxhlet method and water method hidrodistilasi. Furthermore, each extract, both of method and hidrodistilasi soxhlet tested for their radical scavenging activity DPPH (2,2-diphenil-1- picrylhydrazil radical), the antioxidants in the extract and essential oil will react DPPH beluntas leaves and turn them into alpha, alpha- diphenyl-beta-picrylhydrazine. Changes absorption produced by the reaction is a measure of the antioxidant capability of leaves beluntas. As a comparison used TBHQ (tertiary butyl hydroquinone) and υ-carotene which has generally been used as a commercial aktioksidan.

The results demonstrated the following successive beta-carotene> Essential oils beluntas> extract beluntas> TBHQ. From this data it can be said that the leaves beluntas have potential as natural antioxidants and can take the place of TBHQ and beta-carotene as an antioxidant.

Potential applications beluntas leaves as a food preservative and medicine.
Of use of the antimicrobial compound / antibacterial function as preservatives, also an antioxidant that works to prevent oxidation, thus preventing the food product from damage due to exposure to air and light, has been largely derived from synthetic chemicals. Based on the research of these materials can cause negative health impacts. As an alternative solution can be to use natural ingredients that has the advantage because it is safer for consumption.

From the data mentioned above it can be concluded that the leaf has the potential fatherly beluntas developed as an extract that serves as a food preservative, for the ability to inhibit the growth of bacteria causing food poisoning and bacteria that cause food spoilage. Besides, it is also his ability as a radical scavenging activity can be used as an antioxidant compound.

There was also potential beluntas leaves can be used also as an anti-inflammatory agent (inflammation) and diarrhea due to its ability to inhibit the growth of S. aureus and E. coli.
Thank you for reading this article. Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno. sunarnobambang86@gmail.com
author:
https://plus.google.com/105319704331231770941.
Name: Bambang Sunarno.
http://primadonablog.blogspot.com/2016/02/about-beluntas.html
Date Published: February 06 2016 at 11:03
Tag : Beluntas.
Code : 7MHPNPADAEFW

Posted by: Bambang Sunarno
www.Primo.com Updated at: 11:03

Animal Eye position.


An assortment of animal eyes.
Eyes useless to see. But did you know that there are animals who do not have the eyes and on the contrary there are animals whose eyes up to eight?

God has set it. His imaginary creature's eyes adjusted to its usefulness. Therefore the ability and placement tailored to their needs.

Some are created by Him for the night there for the day or for both. Some are for the purpose of attack or otherwise nothing to defend himself. Each of it has its drawbacks and advantages.

Eye squirrel.

Squirrel or Squirrel eyes are on either side of his head, and is located on both his cheeks are shaped sloped forward and resembles a cone. Thus it has an inside edge towards the front.

But the location of the eyes was quite close to the base of the head that ran through his head as he climbed a tree he could see through the back of pursuit or not.

Or while running on the ground he can look up to oversee the hawk chasing him. But besides the advantage that he has a weakness that can not be viewed easily sideways.

Eagle eye.

Mata eagles have incredible eyesight to hunt. He can see a rabbit hopping among bushes thousands of feet below.

Rabbit eyes.

But the rabbit hunted have eyes on both sides of his head which place such that it can see eagles were hunting and being swooped for snatched. Now living animals which are lucky.

Owl Eyes.

Owls have eyes located not like birds' eyes in general, ie on both sides of the head, but in front of his face. His eyesight is very sharp and can clearly observe their prey in the dark of night or in overcast condition.

But in order to determine where the prey he prefers hearing. He can pinpoint the exact position of the mice from the noise of leaves disturbed by the movement of the prey rat.

Owl hunter at night has a great eye at all, so great that his eyes can not be driven in the eye sockets.

To look to the side he must rotate his neck, and he can do to look back though. Apart from that his eyes were sharp so that in the dim light, which the human eye can not malihat anything, he can find their prey.

Birds Eye Robin.

Robin bird, bittern Murai yamg in Europe are not able to see things clearly that are a few centimeters in front of him. In order to medilihat clear, prey it must be at some distance.

To be able to see their prey, such as a worm, he straightened up and moved his head toward the back, so that her eyes were there at a distance "can see".

It seems like people are farsighted, to see objects clearly (for example to be able to read) the farsightedness that should keep it a few centimeters from him.

Cat eye.

Cats are pets that really we enjoy doing. He included the beast "noctural" is an animal on the hunt both during the day and at night.

Therefore, the cat's eye can adjust both for daytime and for evening. Pupils (pupil) is not round like most other binatang-, but elliptical (oval). On the evening of the oval shape being wide open to strong light or bright shrink up into the shape of a gap.
Cat eyes would glow (like a fire) when highlighted strong light, because the back of the eye that there is a layer of membrane that works like a mirror that reflects back the light that hits. Other than that it was within its eye cells are very sensitive to dim light. But the cells can not distinguish colors alias color blind.

Fish eye.

Both of our eyes it is a unity, glancing together in the same direction and saw the same thing anyway. Similarly, in mammals and birds. But is not the case in fish, especially fish that is flat, the eyes that are on the left and right of the head.

In the group of fish (as well as in the chameleon) Mataya both worked each freely, independent of one another, for example, toward the front of the left eye right eye being led to the back.

Thus it can cover the distance vision and a wide viewing area, because it can see the secaara two different directions simultaneously. Fish do not have eyelids, so can not blink (always glares). Thus water can always be membersikannya and therefore his eyes are always clean.

Spider eyes.

Eye spider is a combination of several eye. Each eye has a lens and recipient cells light beam so that it looks like facets separated and are usually arranged in groups or clumps on the back of his head.

Spider catches its prey with webs and wait for prey trapped, not so dependent on sight like a spider hunter. Therefore, it is not a problem for him nearby the myopic nature.
Spider hunter has clumps eyes composed of eight eyes are on her back. Each eye lens fitted and cells that can capture light beam.

Although there was a spider who can see clearly an object that is located at a distance of more than 30 cm, spider hunters can follow the slightest movement of the shadow of prey who move from one currency to the next eye.
Thank you for reading this article. Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno. sunarnobambang86@gmail.com
author:
https://plus.google.com/105319704331231770941.
Name: Bambang Sunarno.
http://primadonablog.blogspot.com/2016/02/animal-eye-position.html
Date Published: February 06 2016 at 09:13
Tag : Animal Eye position.
Code : 7MHPNPADAEFW

Posted by: Bambang Sunarno
www.Primo.com Updated at: 09:13

About Platypus.


 Platypus.
Platypus is a semi-aquatic animals are mostly found in the eastern part of the continent of Australia. Although the egg-laying platypus but he belongs to the mammal class because she was breast-feeding her child. Platypus has unique characteristics that have venom like Snake Has mouth and lay eggs like a duck and swims like an otter.

Platypus also commonly known as the duck-billed platypus or duck-billed platypus is due to its shape that resembles a duck. Platypus including a strange beast of the kingdom Animalia.

Platypus was first discovered by a British scientist, George Shaw, in 1799. He estimated that this animal existed since the dinosaur age. Platypus name itself comes from the Greek and Latin that means flat feet.

Animals are very unique because it is the only mammals that lay eggs and breast-feeding, or in biological terms is called ovovivipar.dan have to like
snake, had a mouth like a duck and has feathers like a beaver

Physiology.

Platypus body temperature of approximately 32 degrees Celsius. This temperature is lower than most mammal (about 38 degrees Celsius). Platypus body covered in brown fur that keep their bodies warm.

Platypus webbed feet like a duck. Platypus also had a beak like a duck. Part of this is used as sensory organs.
Platypus weight ranges from under 1 kg to more than 2 kg. The body length of 30-40 cm and a tail length of about 10-15 cm (males) and 8-13 cm (female). Male platypus up to 3 times larger females.

Platypus also are animals beranun. This toxin is used in turf battles or battles between friends.

Ecology.

Platypus is nocturnal and semi-aquatic. Platypus is a good swimmer and spends much of his time in the water to search for food. When swimming, Platypus shut his eyes tightly and leave the rest to the other senses.

Fourth Platypus webbed feet. When he swam, he pedaled by using her front legs. And to maintain the balance of the body used his tail and hind legs. Platypus eat worms, insect larvae, and yabbie dug or he caught while swimming.

Platypus has four legs which are arranged horizontally in the body. It serves to movement on land. Membrane on its front legs have a size large enough to help him swim in the water. Platypus swim by moving the front leg.

Facts About Platypus.

In the 1990s, many people hunt the platypus for its coat. But this time, the platypus is included in the animals protected by the Australian government. Their population also decreases. That's because a lake or stream where they live many contaminated.

If she was walking on land, its membrane will be folded into and replaced with claws digunakkannya for a walk and explore the land. Walking the rear also has claws to control his body while swimming. The paws can also be used withhold his food as he dug and to keep his fur to keep them dry

Platypus usually looking for food in the water with diving in water for 1.5 minutes. He is looking for prey menggunakkan half of which has a sensor to detect motion.

Reproduction.

Platypus lay eggs like a reptile egg, and a little rounder than bird eggs. Platypus females usually lay two eggs at the same time. Although sometimes allow Platypus females spawn one or three eggs.

Its incubation period is divided into three parts :

The first phase - The embryo does not have any functional organs and relies on a red egg sac to breathe.
The second phase - the toes start to appear.
The third stage - Dental appear. The eggs hatch after an incubation period that lasts about 10 days. After the eggs hatch, the baby came out Platypus hairless is directly attached to the parent. The parent will then nursing her child who was blind and insensitive. Platypus baby will leave the nest after the age of 17 weeks (approximately 4 months through). Platypus reproductive organs resemble birds (Aves). Female platypus has an ovary consisting of the right ovary and left ovary where the ovaries do not grow perfectly right (the same as the bird).
Thank you for reading this article. Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno. sunarnobambang86@gmail.com
author:
https://plus.google.com/105319704331231770941.
Name: Bambang Sunarno.
http://primadonablog.blogspot.com/2016/02/about-platypus.html
Date Published: February 06 2016 at 08:24
Tag : About Platypus.
Code : 7MHPNPADAEFW

Posted by: Bambang Sunarno
www.Primo.com Updated at: 08:24

Friday, 5 February 2016

Worm cylinder.

Worm cylinder.
Scientists using deep sea cameras and sonar follows other high-tech equipment to find that at the bottom of the ocean deep and dark ocean floor creatures living group unique.
Starting from a jellyfish that can emit light, until the cylindrical worm, which lives by consuming oil seeping from the seabed as their food. A total of 17 650 living species in area of ​​seabed that is very dark and cold, were it up to 5 kilometers (about 3 miles), including shrimps, corals, starfish, crabs, and so forth.
Robert Carney of Louisiana State University, chairman of the research team deepwater projects Survey of Ocean International (CoML) told Reuters, "Variations kinds of creatures that live in the deep ocean far beyond our imagination so far, here is no longer a black hole in the simple. "CoML survey project is a project that is planned to be completed by October 2010.

Generally light can penetrate to a depth of 200 meters into the sea, or almost equivalent to the height of the Washington monument that reaches 169 meters, more than it has been regarded as a high-pressure destructive that can not be covered by anything. Outside the area that can be covered by plants that receive the sun light, living creatures can only live in a way to parse the bacteria contained in the methane or oil, or from the bodies of dead sea creatures such as whales bodies to survive.

Among the marine life in this there are jellyfish that can emit light and some kind of creature tangible jelly eight-legged finned or called "the ear great" aka Dumbo, because of the creature using his ears to pack water, like a character from flying elephant Dumbo in movies cartoon.
Mike Vecchione of the Smithsonian said "the big ear" has a length of about 2 meters, which is a large-sized creatures on the seabed, there are also a number of sharks and jellyfish cylindrical. He told Reuters that the cylindrical jellyfish even longer than the blue whale.

When drilling offshore petroleum in the Gulf of Mexico, on the seabed at a depth of 990 meters the scientists found their cylindrical worm. When the robot hand to catch and pull the worm out of the hole the seabed, there is oil that gushed out. It relies living creatures to break down petroleum.

Carney said that the interests of the oil mining companies are conducting a survey to find oil deposits, but the presence of a cylindrical worm can be regarded as a sign. "If it is found the worm cylinder, means near where it no methane or liquid petroleum."
However, Carney also said that a number of scientists "feel upset because it is generally part of the seabed rarely get attention", and scientists are worried about the exploration of natural resources is carried out on the deep sea because humans still do not have sufficient understanding of the creatures living in a very deep part of the sea. What is known about the man living creatures in the deep ocean is very little.
A total of 680 types of specimens of copepods-shelled creatures that have been collected from the southeast Atlantic Ocean there are only 7 of them were recognizable. In addition've also found for the first time a kind of worm Osedax at the poles.

Tangible jelly creatures called "the big ears" or Dumbo. (David Shale)
Although the deep sea floor covered with eternal darkness, a number of living beings can emit their own light, they rely on this light to target the game as well to attract a mate, and they also have eyes that can see. There are also a number of marine creatures that swim on its sunny side up to the part that is very deep, once there are people who find seals at a depth of 2,388 meters.
Climate change is warming world and human activities such as burning fossil fuels also had an impact on the most inside of an ocean. Vecchione said, "There is already evidence to suggest that climate warming has occurred in the deep sea and the water quality becomes acidic."
Thank you for reading this article. Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno.sunarnobambang86@gmail.com
author:
https://plus.google.com/105319704331231770941.
Name: Bambang Sunarno.
http://primadonablog.blogspot.com/2016/02/worm-cylinder.html
Date Published: February 05 2016 at 13:08
Tag : Worm cylinder.
Code : 7MHPNPADAEFW

Posted by: Bambang Sunarno
www.Primo.com Updated at: 13:08

Tuesday, 2 February 2016

About Tardigrada.

Tardigrada can survive in a frozen environment (0 oc) to place a high temperature (151 OC).
Tardigrada (known as Water Bears) are part of the sub-phylum Ecdysozoa. Tardigrada size is very small and live in the water with the feet of eight. Tardigrada first described by Eprhaim Goeze in 1773. Tardigrada name means "slow walker" given by Spallanzani (1777). Tardigrada adult body length is 1.5 mm, the smallest size of 0.1 mm, 0.05 mm sized larvae. Tardigrada can be found in all parts of the world, ranging from Himalayan peaks to the ocean floor, and from the poles to the equator.
The most preferred place in the air-algae. On the beach, land and water can be found in this mini beasts.

The most interesting of these animals is the ability to adapt to extreme environments. Tardigrada can survive in a frozen environment (0 oc) to place a high temperature (151 OC). It can even withstand radiation Rad 570,000, 1,000 times higher than the amount of radiation in which another living thing can survive. Therefore, Tardigrada known as animal polyextremophiles. With these capabilities, Tardigrada a living creature can survive in the event of a nuclear war or other extreme natural disasters. Even Tardigrada can live for 10-100 years in dry conditions, even record Tardigrada survive in dry conditions longest is 120 years old. Unfortunately, after the completion of the estivasi and move the motion for a few minutes, the animal died. Another unique capability of Tardigrada is able to survive in a state space vacuum. In one study in September 2007, Tardigrada can live for as long as 10 days in the space environment. Tardigrada that clicking space using spacecraft FOTON-M3 by the European Space Agency, can survive in a vacuum, exposed to cosmic rays, and can even withstand the sun's UV radiation 1,000 times higher than the radiation on the earth's surface, and this animal also have teeth as sharp as a knife hidden in his mouth shaped tube. In addition, Tardigrada also able to withstand a pressure of 6000 kg / sq cm.

Facts About Tardigrade.

Tardigrades are very small and almost invisible to the eye and Why tardigrades also called water bears? because the body shape looks like bears that live in the water

Tardigrada mouth.
The most persistent creatures on Earth can live in boiling water, solid ice, and radiation of space. It can survive a decade in the desert, without a drop of water, or in the deepest ocean trenches.

A Spacetime Odyssey, Neil deGrasse Tyson introduce you to small animals Tardigrade, or water bears. The small aquatic invertebrates almost invincible, able to tolerate any conditions and temperatures that would kill almost any other living creatures.


So what makes this tardigrade invertebrate animals have enormous power.

1. Tardigrades change shape to survive without water.

When faced with extreme conditions, tardigrades can dry out completely, replacing nearly water in their bodies with a sugar called trehalose. As a result, they were able to survive the environment that would otherwise kill them.


2. Tardigrades very small size to hide from predators.

For all their resilience, tardigrade is one of the smallest creatures in nature. Barely the size of a poppy seed less than 1.5 millimeters in length, tardigrade can exist in sediments and marine hidden, unnoticed by a potential predator.

3. Tardigrades mouth like a sharp dagger.

Though their numbers may be small, they're fierce! Tardigrade mouth is the most serious weapon, as used spear algae or even other small animals.

4 Tardigrades traveling into space - and survived.

To test the endurance of true Tardigrades, a Swedish researcher K. Ingemar Jonsson of Kristianstad University launched tardigrades into space on the spacecraft FOTON-M3 in low Earth orbit in 2007. Affected by the conditions of space, most of the tardigrades survived and survival of exposure vacuum and cosmic rays, with some even life from deadly levels of UV radiation.


5. Tardigrades already exist on almost every other living organisms.

Tardigrades already roamed the earth and the sea long before humans do - and will most likely outlast us. Will tardigrades into final organism in the universe? Only time will tell.
Thank you for reading this article. Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno. sunarnobambang86@gmail.com
author:
https://plus.google.com/105319704331231770941.
name: Bambang Sunarno.
http://primadonablog.blogspot.com/2016/02/about-tardigrada.html
Date Published: 02 February 2016 at 14:39
Tag : Tardigrada.
Code : 7MHPNPADAEFW

Posted by: Bambang Sunarno
www.Primo.com Updated at: 14:39