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Wednesday, 16 January 2019

Welcome.

Welcome to Kediri.

By introducing the name Bambang Sunarno authors also introduce Kediri city as well as the historic birthplace and original culinary style Kediri, East Java, Indonesia.
This blog was established by Bambang Sunarno with the purpose of information, communication and knowledge.
In the town of Kediri, there are several historic sites and some of the history of Kediri.

Attractions including  :

Selomangleng cave.

Selomangleng cave.

Maskumambang lake.

Maskumambang lake.

Maria Lourdes grotto Kediri.

Maria Lourdes grotto Kediri.

Maria Lourdes cave has been known to tourists, and is known by the name Puh Sarang Church Kediri. The tourists always visit every holiday or there is an opportunity to visit with family Kediri, while Maria Lourdes grotto is a site that explains in detail the crucifixion of Jesus and also used for the followers of the Christian ritual.

Dolo Waterfall Kediri.

Dolo Waterfall Kediri.

Waterfall Dolo very attractive to newcomers from abroad or locally to enjoy the beauty of the high fountain and splashing in the gentle breeze and feel fresh.

If you want to Kelud. 

the road to the mountain kelud hot water.

Please contact the Travel Agents are available in the town of Kediri and you will get a place to take you.

culinary seller on the street Dhoho kediri.

When you visit in the evening there is a culinary providers Doho line the streets until the evening at 24.00, and for the guests do not have to worry, because every time you come there is always the hotels were good and satisfying.
Thank you for reading this article. Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno. sunarnobambang86@gmail.com
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DatePublished: 27 September 2019 at 23:16
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Friday, 27 January 2017

Did You Know About Leeches ?

 Leeches

Leeches are ' worms ' with suckers on each end. Leeches can be divided in a variety of sizes, from the size of half an inch to ten inches in length, there are leeches color brown or black color. There are some that eat decaying plants. Others are parasites, sucking the blood and other animal tissues.
blood sucking leeches in two ways : using a leech proboscis to puncture the skin or using three jaws and millions of tiny teeth. Leeches live almost anywhere there is water origin. Leeches find their prey by detecting skin oils, blood, heat or carbon dioxide even when the prey breathes.
Leeches do not often eat , this is because the leeches suck in large amounts of blood when eating.
Doctors often use leeches in the past to draw blood. Leeches are also used to perform operations and cutting hair. When the barber finished the operation,
she would take a bloody bandage and wrap around the pole to show that he was doing surgery. That's how the origin of the red and white pole circling the barber.
Now maggots and leeches are used for different reasons . Scientists are studying the saliva of leeches. They believe the substances that stop or prevent blood clots that someday could be used in humans. The researchers also identified several medical compounds that can be developed from the saliva of leeches.
The properties of anticoagulant and clot - digesting these substances makes them potentially useful as a drug for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as heart attack and stroke . Leeches can be " milked " for their secretions without being harmed, and continues to do research the possibility of engineering synthetic leech saliva. But it still used leeches to suck blood.
Doctors now turn to leeches to help restore blood circulation to grafted tissue and reattached and toes.
For example : microsurgeons at a Boston hospital used leeches to save the ears of a 5 year old boy who had been bitten by a dog died . The leech can remove all solid blood to allow normal circulation to return to the network , thus preventing gangrene from scratch .
At this time , hundreds of thousands of leeches are sold in the U.S. to hospitals , clinics and individuals the European market , much bigger and millions of leeches are sold every year .

Hirudotherapy.

Hirudotherapy is treatment using medical leeches . This type of therapy is known from extreme antiquity and is still alive today . This fact shows effectiveness in healing various diseases . Currently Hirudotherapy method approved by many countries .

Hirudotherapy is treatment using medical leeches

Great experience using medicinal leeches in medical purpose kept up for centuries With the development of science covert action mechanism described leech salivary glands , are biologically active substances included in it was introduced to the public , the influence of leeches on the particular structure of a living organism has been investigated . Some medical forms are made on the basis of biologically active substances from the salivary glands of leeches and work on the creation of a new substance that is by doing a modern Hirudotherapy different from the old-fashioned because now we do not use the wild leeches , instead we use leeches that live in the wild , especially where they are in a natural condition that dirty , we currently use a leech only once .
The advantages are obvious and absolute safety Hirudotherapy checked on thousands of years of human experience and not cause doubts . One of the first substance that is found in the salivary glands of medicinal leeches is hirudin , a substance that thins the blood clotting process , anticoagulating as destabilaza fermentation , ingibitors of plazmine , callecrein of plasmine and others .
Factors diffusion - ferments of gialuronidaza , collagenaza , appressing factors mediators of pain - cininaza , antisclerous factors are also investigated . Thus , medicinal leeches are manufacturing biologically active substances . The result of the action of biologically active substances on living organisms are ;
- Normalization and improvement of capillary circulation ;
- Declare antiinflammatory effects ;
- Antistressful and adaptogene effect ;
- Immunostimulants and immunomodulating effects ;
- Anesthesia ;
- Anticoagulation ;
- Antibacterial Effect ;
- Improvement of the endocellular exhange and realization of this mechanism has both local and general character .
The existence of skin-visceral connection with the organs are definitely famous. biologically active substances act to organ for blood -sucking leeches drug action through Viens. This prompted an increase in blood circulation in specific organs, making trombolitic , anti-inflammatory , immunostimulant action , improve nutrition of tissues , strengthen the immune network . It is impossible for all the diseases that can be treated by using Hirudotherapy , contra - indications with Hirudotherphy is hemophilia , pregnancy , anemia , hypotonia .
Hirudotherapy can be applied to any disease known at this time . It can be used as an independent method of treatment and in a complex with other people to know . Doctors know exactly how difficult it is to struggle with chronic inflammatory diseases. The problem is in all types of clinical presentation of the disease organism protection mechanisms are universal-emission inflammatory mediators, vazoconstrictors , apireties and some other biologically active substances into the blood . Everything comes to the aspirations of living organisms to limit the nidus of inflammation by a decrease in blood circulation and capillary permeability - network , the creation of a shaft with conjunctive tissue inflammation and cellular structure and mode of temperature in the area . Given as a result of the concentration of the drug for instance an antibiotic in the nidus of inflammation is much lower than in the blood . Increasing doses of chemical drugs do not solve the problem because of excessive lead to allergies and side effects in other organs ( liver, kidney, bone marrow, glands Endocrin ). As a result, found many problems; disbacteriosis , hepatitis , nephropathy , immune deficiency conditions , but chronic inflammation problem for a given patient is not resolved . Here is to remember about Hirudotherapy . Containing biologically active substances in leech saliva glands can restore blood circulation in the nidus of inflammation , ischemia remove organs , giving the exchange capillary network and therefore can perform chemical transport of drugs into the nidus of inflammation , improve immune protection and tissue regeneration . In such conditions the use of the same chemical drugs is possible in smaller doses . These factors do not limit the ability to influence the nidus of inflammation Hirudotherapy . The problem is that in the salivary glands of medicinal leeches there are some substances that are able to withstand bacterias.One growth substances studied were the most hirudin . In experiments on animals and bactericidal action of hirudin has been proven bacteriastatic . The main reason of drug action on thrombophlebitis hirudin example is its bactericidal properties . That's why it became clear that the use of leeches in both aseptic inflammation and the inflammation caused by a bacterial agent helps the organism . Owned medicinal leech salivary gland secrets to penetrate the " axis demarcacional " inflammation is deternimed by the action of a factor of-the - enzyme gialuronidaza penetration . This enzyme is able to act unactivate gialuron acid which is a cementing substance for connective tissue .
feaeture sort Hirudotherapy essentially distinquishes of other treatment methods .
In addition to the above mentioned effects Hirudotherapy it is necessary to remember about the biological influences such as irritation of the active points in zones.It reflex has been long known that leeches prefer to sit in certain areas of the skin that correspond to points of ancient Chinese method of treatment - needleacupuncture . In Hirudotherapy results we receive in the treatment effect is not only due to the action of biologically active substances ' secret leeches , but also in a way that affects the reflex zones .
For example, in the treatment of hypertonic disease biologically active points and cervical occipital regions used and the influence of these points give , vasodilation and hipotenzive effects.The other anesthetic action of the leech is a leech exhaust taking.One blood of 5 to 10 ml of blood .. The bleeding lasts for several hours ( approximately 12-24 hours ) and patients lose about 20-30 ml blood.Thus due to the influence of the leech 5 simulteneously patients 100-250 ml of blood loss and blood this way has the advantage of taking no doubt before taking blood from a vein . Taking blood from the organs associated with pain lasted for about an hour . Therefore , creating conditions of many lasts hours and venous drainage and stable fit of certain areas , in certain areas there is usually improved microcirculation , nutrition network , mobile exchange , venous stagnation usually liquidated and organ ischemia usually eliminated.After course of treatment consists of 5-10 procedures using leeches 4-10 good clinical effect is marked.At cardiovascular pathology circulatory decompensation ( ishemic heart disease , defect intimate ) that points to the heart of authentic leech reduce elevated arterial pressure , leading to reduce stagnation in heart , for increased ventilation of the lungs and heart demolition . The effect comes in direct hipotenzive results and anticoagulating action of hirudin and not a smaller degree by reducing peripheral resistance . In the cardiovascular system disease Hirudotherapy play a special role.It easy to find an explanation for the attention to the conditions mentioned above properties.Besides note hirudin ability to affect blood clotting . Fluid and blood clotting conditions provided by the functional interation of two systems of organisms : anticlotting.The anticlotting support system and blood clotting in a liquid state , protecting it from freezing , which both provide protection from bleeding in violation of the integrity of blood vessels . For patients with ischemic heart disease , hypertension , for parents , for patients with diabetes is a major problem as angiopathy and vessel atherosclerosis - results ; atherosclerosis anyone integrety violation of vessels.which blood supply and turn on the system clotting.In terrible results show most of the heart disease and arterial thrombosis in vessels is an important vital organs. The output of thrombosis is heart infarction , brain , lungs brinding sometimes deadly results . Stimulation fibrinolitic activity and anticlotting systems of the blood in disease , the suppression of the formation trombs , and reduce blood viscosity is needed both with medical purpose and for preventive maintenance of ischemic conditions . The mechanism of action of hirudin on thrombin oppressive investigated . hirudin blocks the action of thrombin and the latter loses its properties , does not promote the transition of fibrinogen to fibrin. Besides secret saliva of medicinal leeches block an attachement anitial of platelets and actually press them on the surface collagenus aggregetion . Thus , the secret saliva of leeches and the influence of the drug on blood plasma cellular factor clotting. In much research writer is indicated that after the leech is no normalization parameter assignment separate from coagulogramme - on anitial combination of hyper coagulation system activates and vice versa anticoagulating is becoming more active . Similar effects were not accepted even when we use a known anticoagulant such as heparin and aspirin . We must add the effects lipotropal enzymes from the salivary glands of leeches which consists in the ability of drugs to influence on blood lipids . At the beginning of this century, some scientists expressed the assumption that the development of atherosclerosis can be prevented by applying medicinal leeches . In the 1984-1989 experiment proved that the introduction of long- secret introvenous salivary glands of medicinal leeches to mice that were presented in conditions very last atherosclerosis has been a reduction in lung lipids and abdominal arteries . It is known that lipoproteids low density and low density lipoproteids greatly promoted the development of atherosclerosis , but the high density lipoproteids antisclerous protective factors play a role . On hearing the disease there ishemic redistribution of cholesterol in the different classes of lipoproteids density . Quantity in lipoproteids it raises low-density and very low density lipoproteids reduced resulting in high lipoproteids . In this group had increased levels of lipid authentic general , triglicerids , cholesterol on artery walls . Many writers are engaged in this sign authentically reduction problem triglicerids and cholesterol in the blood after a few sessions Hirudotherapy . This makes it possible to draw the conclusion that the secret lipotropic ensymes leech saliva drug can be used in the atherosclerotic vessel defects regardless of the primary localization of atherosclerosis . Perhaps the effect of " rejuvenation " can look after emergence Hirudotherapy shine in the eyes , skin elasticity improvement , flush appearance , loss of face mask fatigue in patients , strong sort of patient . That's possible because in this case we are dealing with an increase mechanism Vasku.

The nature of Leech Therapy.


The nature of Leech Therapy

leech mouth.

structure leech

Therapeutic properties Hirudotherapy ;

* Common reflexogenic : hypotension
* Bleeds : immunopotentiating
* Internal decongestion : bacteriostatic
* Anticoagulants : anti - inflammatory
* Protective antithrombotic : Local anti - edema
* Thrombolytic : analgesic
* Removal of microcirculation disorders : antiatherosclerotic
* Anti - ischemic : elimination of abnormal interactions between the system.

Doctor Miracle called leech .

Applied drugs have hundreds of years of experience in the fight against human disease . Tens of thousands of different mixtures , tablets , vaccines , drugs , etc. have been created - and they are all human treatment effects . And why professional doctors again and again apply to traditional methods of treatment rather old drug tested by our ancestors ? There is no secret that ... All of these methods are based on natural root . That is why we applied the medical center fashioned method " of treatment for hundreds of diseases ".

Hirudotherapy .

Hirudotherapy ( from Latin leech Hirudo - ) is known since ancient times . Along with general bloodletting , has been regarded as a necessary drug in the treatment of different diseases .
Secrets of the medical leech salivary gland contains more than 100 bioactive substances and has anti -inflammatory action , bacteriostatic , analgesic , completing , it eliminates the microcirculation disorders , vascular permeability restore damaged tissues and organs , eliminating hypoxia ( lack of oxygen ) , reducing blood pressure , improving the activity of the immune system , detoxifies the organism , releases from threatening complications , such as infarction , stroke , improving bioenergy status of the organism .
How confidential leech injection is very simple : placed on the skin to bite the skin , then the leech saliva secret falls into the bloodstream and go to the focus of the disease through the vessel .
In medicine we use hirudoreflexotherapy put leeches on reflexogenic point as " needle Life ".

Indications for treatment with medicinal leeches :

* Cardiovascular diseases , including essential hypertension and ischemic
   diseases , diseases phlebogene of the lower extremities ;
* Chronic bronchitis , pneumonia , bronchial asthma ;
* Digestive tract diseases ( hepatitis , cholecystitis , pancreatitis , gastric ulcer ) ;
* ENT Disease ;
* Paradontosis and other dental diseases ;
* Urological diseases ;
* Male sterility ;
* Skin diseases ( neurodermatitis , psoriasis , eczema , herpes ) ;
* Gynecological disorders ( commissural process in the small pelvis ,
* Female infertility ,
* Adnexitis chronic , parametritis ,
* Endometriosis , fibromastopathy ) ;
* Systemic diseases ( rheumatoid arthritis , systemic lupus erythematosus , scleroderma ) ;
* Osteochondrosis and radiculitis ;
* Eye diseases , including glaucoma ;
* Infantile cerebral paralysis ( ICP ) and other diseases .
* Therapy Hirudotherapy properties :

Blood shortage.

Leech therapy is always associated with a certain degree of blood loss , which is clinically irrelevant in most cases . In clinical trials by Michalsen , losses mean hemoglobin 0.7 mg / dL of blood loss , and clinically relevant not occur in any of the patients studied . However , there is a strong afterbleeding isolated observations with a decrease in hemoglobin value , especially in cases where the leech was accidentally applied directly to the superficial veins . According to the Essen-Mitte Hospital, clinically relevant decrease in hemoglobin (> 3 mg/dL) occurred after leech therapy in two patients , one of whom required blood transfusion ( after being treated with six leeches for osteoarthritis of the knee ) . Asked retrospective , one patient stated that he was , in his opinion , prolonged bleeding injuries in the past . In other cases , afterbleeding from leech bites lasted for 36 hours and must be stopped by skin sutures . extensive coagulation test is then performed but did not reveal any specific coagulation disorders . Prior to the occurrence of abnormal bleeding anamnestically seem important , and patients should be specifically questioned about the incident . Anticoagulants are drugs simultaneously important to see . If low-dose aspirin is prescribed in combination with other platelet aggregation inhibitors ( clopidogrel , Iscover , Plavix ) or high -dose fish oil ( Omacor ) , a small number of leeches ( 3-4 ) should be used initially. blood counts should always be obtained before the start of leech therapy. To reliably prevent the loss of the relevant amount of blood , the leech therapist should never use more than 12 twisters in a single treatment session.

Impaired Wound Healing , superinfection , and Allergies .

Once the leech drops off , the edge of the wound three branches generally swell during 12-48 hours accompanied by feelings of local tension , hot , and flushed . Small blood spots ( ecchymoses ) develop under the skin around the bite of a leech . larger collection of blood rarely develops . Such as superficial bruises , blood spots initially reddish purple , then turn yellowish , and finally disappeared in about two weeks . Localized inflammation , sometimes with papulous height of the bite site , is a relatively common problem that is often accompanied by itching . This inflammation usually subsides quickly when the ice and left . The cause of this disorder is unknown wound - healing . improper handling , especially early termination afterbleeding from wounds , leech head squeezed with pliers , strong deletion of leeches before finished eating , and the failure to keep the animals in freshwater , has frequently been implicated as a potential cause . However , it has also been observed to occur right after leech treatment in isolated cases . Theoretically, Aeromonas hydrophila local infection with a potential cause , but so far there is no evidence of microbiological presence of Aeromonas hydrophila in the wound fluid of affected patients . more severe local inflammation is most often caused by secondary wound contamination or irritation due to mechanical irritation , such as scratching and rubbing . Patients should be informed of the overall importance of protecting the wound from mechanical irritation . According to survey hospitals , more severe local inflammation occurs in three isolated cases : One patient developed erysipelas and two lymphangitis being developed . All cases resolved rapidly in response to treatment with cephalosporin antibiotics and / or gyrase inhibitors . Obedience localization contraindications and recommendations to minimize the risk of local inflammation . In case it is not clear where the progressive and painful skin redness develops , especially if it is associated with increased temperature , the leech therapist should know to administer antibiotics immediately . Pseudolymphomas may occur in rare cases , this is caused by efflorescences papulous reaction to arthropod bites leech . Currently , no data are used to assess the exact frequency of these side effects . To our knowledge , a total of three documented and confirmed cases have been reported .
It is difficult to distinguish the wound - healing secondary disturbance of potential allergic reactions . precise data on the frequency of allergic reactions to the bite of a leech is not available . Local itching , a common side effect of leeching , should not be construed as an allergic reaction . allergic reactions such as urticaria firmly while and locodistant swelling have been reported in a few isolated cases . However , local symptoms , reflex erythema and urticarial dermographism psychovegetatively unstable individuals have been studied more frequently . An older case reports describe the occurrence of short -term anaphylactic shock after six leeches applied to the temple area . Some experts manage systemic antihistamines leech therapy for the treatment of localized allergic reaction to ( empirical ) good success . However , response rates for both antihistamines are not evidence per se of allergens : A certain level of placebo response to antihistamines should also be taken into account . Which may be boosting existing antibiotics allergic to leech therapy is also proposed in case reports .
When interpreting a local reaction that occurs after leech therapy , it is important to remember that the protease in the saliva of leeches release various types of mediators nonimmunological . Furthermore , the reaction may be exacerbated by factors psychovegetative . All in all , there are only a few cases in which a relationship between leech therapy and the occurrence of allergic reactions has been proven with reasonable certainty . However , potential allergic reactions occur after exposure to any foreign protein . Contact dermatitis has also been observed after the use of leeches ointment .
Short-term reactive swelling and / or tenderness of the lymph nodes proximal have occasionally been reported , but most often in patients with delayed wound healing . This phenomenon has most often develops in the groin area after application of leeches for the treatment of knee joint, hip joint, or varicose veins. Quickly and smoothly loss swollen lymph nodes all of which are described in case reports.

Blood poisoning .

Sepsis due to systemic infection with Aeromonas hydrophila has been repeatedly observed after application of leeches in reconstructive surgery indications , but not in any of the other relevant fields used . This supports the conclusion that the risk of Aeromonas hydrophila sepsis increased only in patients with severe underlying disease or immunosuppression , which often occur in surgical candidates for leech therapy . Therefore we recommend concurrent antibiotic treatment for all surgical patients receiving leech therapy . In the rest of the field of use , the primary antibiotic therapy does not seem to be required in accordance with the current state of knowledge , but must be considered relevant contraindications.

Transmission of Infectious Diseases .

At this time , medicinal leeches are generally only used once . Therefore , there is no risk of indirect transfer of infectious diseases from one patient to another . Aeromonas hydrophila primary infection with clinically relevant only if the leech goes for transplant surgery . Concurrent antibiotic treatment therefore recommended for prophylaxis of infection in these cases ( see above ) . Transmission of pathogenic bacteria or other viruses to humans in the context of leech therapy has not been observed so far.

Scars.

If allowed , the former is usually rapid leech shrunk to hardly visible or invisible signs three small branches disappear completely within one to three weeks . However , if the impaired wound healing wounds due to scratching or secondary infections , scars will remain visible for a long time significantly . Papulous skin changes over the last few months have also been reported in isolated cases . In one case , a " reaction to arthropod " permanent also been reported after treatment leeches . Significant scarring may occur especially when leeches are applied to
areas with thin skin and a thin layer of subcutaneous tissue or joint area where the skin is constant movement . Wearing tight clothing after treatment , for example, around the knee , can also result in scar formation .
For aesthetic reasons , the control is recommended when using leeches in the face or in part apparent and other relevant cosmetics from the body . Here , we re- emphasize that it is necessary to thoroughly inform patients about the potential risks of treatment , including scar tissue , and to obtain written informed consent from the patient before going ahead with the treatment .

Safety and Side Effects Leech Therapy .

leech therapy rarely ever lead to serious complications . Local pain medication and short-term side effects itching usual . Prior to treatment , patients should be advised accordingly and asked to sign a consent form that describes the side effects that are relevant ( see Appendix ) . Prevalence data from systematic and prospective studies are only available for a few different side effects of leech therapy . The following analysis is compiled using data from published efficacy studies and case reports , as well as from personal observation . Quality control data on adverse events documented in more than 1000 cases treated at the Hospital Essen-Mitte, especially for the treatment of degenerative joint disease, is also included in the analysis .

Local Pain During Treatment .

Local pain perception varies leeching . Most patients describe the local dragging pain that occurs immediately after leech bites and lasts for about one to five minutes . Such as saliva more and more introduced into the network , the anesthetic effect of leech saliva comes into force . The intensity of the pain from the bite of the leech and the first phase is generally described as a light meal or ignored ( depending on the individual 's pain threshold ) , but some patients find the pain is more intense , similar to a wasp sting . Perceived intensity of leech bites varies from one person to another . subjective pain ratings ranged from " hardly noticeable " to " mild " ( similar to stinging nettle pain ) to " similar to a wasp sting " ( very rare ) . Sensation ( or sometimes a bit strong ) rhythmic normally attract little attention for one to three minutes after the start of feeding .
Does stimulation of the same intensity exactly considered painful or not perceived at all of course depends on the personality of the individual , but also depends on the concentration of the people on the leech or leech therapy attitudes toward . Individual leech jaw size , bite force , the intensity of suction , and the volume and composition of leech saliva also plays a role . Many people never even notice the bites of leeches , for example when they are bitten under the water , while their attention is focused on something else . Often , patients are more anxious that focuses on getting ready for the leech bite , the higher the perception of pain . Leech therapist should keep in mind during the preparation phase and during treatment . A diversion can often help . It is also useful to allow the patient to " get to know " "his" or " her " to convince the leech and leech treatment of patients with a confident manner . If latex gloves must be worn for health reasons , the leech therapist does not have to use forceps on leeches . Many patients lose their aversion to leeches when they show how they swim and elegant beautiful colored patterns on their backs shown . Many people report that the patient's attitude toward the leech changes from negative to positive after a positive treatment experience . Most of the concerns are projected to leech is based on ancient fears rather than on objective facts . We also recommend that kill leeches in front of the patient . If leeches had to be killed after treatment , the animals should be frozen and placed in a solution of 90 % alcohol a few days later .

Itching local .

Transient leech bites itch in place within the first few days after treatment is very common and should not be mistaken for an allergic reaction . In a study of the efficacy of leech therapy in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee , approximately 70 % of patients treated with leeches developed local itching that lasts an average of two days . Transient itching occurs at a frequency that is comparable , but the level of intensity is strong in many cases in which leeches were applied to the more peripheral joints , such as the thumb , but at lower levels after treatment of large joints and vertebrogenic zone , according to empirical assessment . Patients can be advised prior to treatment side effects . Patients should not scratch the bites of leeches , especially after the initial wound closure , because it often delays wound healing . We recommend local cooling solution ( curd wraps, cold moist wrap, wrap vinegar ). For more severe itching, antipruritic commercial products ( eg , ointment Fenistil ) or oral antihistamines may be used . Some experts prescribe oral antihistamines leech therapy to patients in conjunction with a known history of a severe reaction ( itching and redness of the skin ) for leech therapy . Isolated reports describe brief relapse hives are in certain situations ( eg , high temperature ) for several months after an otherwise uneventful course of leech therapy .

Hypotension and Vasovagal attack.

Patients with a history of developing vasovagal attack or syncope ( fainting ) before other invasive treatment methods also can develop a reaction like that at the start of or during leech therapy . One survey showed that vasovagal attack occurs in one of 1000 leech treatment performed in our hospital . Therefore , the leech therapist should always ask about the patient's prior history of vasovagal attack or pass out before procedures such as blood sampling or acupuncture . To guard against vasovagal attack , the patient should drink plenty of fluids before and during treatment , and treatment should always be done in a soothing environment while the patient is lying down . Two cases of hypotension and syncope outpatient Vasodepressor following leech therapy were also observed . Both patients known arterial hypertension and three antihypertensive drugs , which they continue to take as normal . A few hours after leech therapy , two patients developed a brief attack of benign syncope . It is important to remember that leeching has known antihypertensive effects when treating patients on antihypertensive drugs . Patients should drink plenty of fluids . If there is a strong flow of blood from leech bites , the patient's blood pressure should be monitored and antihypertensive medications should be adjusted as needed .
Prior to treatment , patients should be advised accordingly and asked to sign a consent form that describes the side effects that are relevant ( see Appendix ) . Prevalence data from systematic and prospective studies are only available for a few different side effects of leech therapy . The following analysis is compiled using data from published efficacy studies and case reports , as well as from personal observation . Quality control data on adverse events documented in more than 1000 cases treated at the Hospital Essen - Mitte , especially for the treatment of degenerative joint disease , is also included in the analysis .

Local Pain During Treatment .

Local pain perception varies leeching . Most patients describe the local dragging pain that occurs immediately after leech bites and lasts for about one to five minutes . Such as saliva more and more introduced into the network , the anesthetic effect of leech saliva comes into force . The intensity of the pain from the bite of the leech and the first phase is generally described as a light meal or ignored ( depending on the individual 's pain threshold ) , but some patients find the pain is more intense , similar to a wasp sting . Perceived intensity of leech bites varies from one person to another . subjective pain ratings ranged from " hardly noticeable " to " mild " ( similar to stinging nettle pain ) to " similar to a wasp sting " ( very rare ) . Sensation ( or sometimes a bit strong ) rhythmic normally attract little attention for one to three minutes after the start of feeding .
Does stimulation of the same intensity exactly considered painful or not perceived at all of course depends on the personality of the individual , but also depends on the concentration of the people on the leech or leech therapy attitudes toward . Individual leech jaw size , bite force , the intensity of suction , and the volume and composition of leech saliva also plays a role . Many people never even notice the bites of leeches , for example when they are bitten under the water , while their attention is focused on something else . Often , patients are more anxious that focuses on getting ready for the leech bite , the higher the perception of pain . Leech therapist should keep in mind during the preparation phase and during treatment . A diversion can often help . It is also useful to allow the patient to " get to know " "his" or " her " to convince the leech and leech treatment of patients with a confident manner . If latex gloves must be worn for health reasons , the leech therapist does not have to use forceps on leeches . Many patients lose their aversion to leeches when they show how they swim and elegant beautiful colored patterns on their backs shown . Many people report that the patient's attitude toward the leech changes from negative to positive after a positive treatment experience . Most of the concerns are projected to leech is based on ancient fears rather than on objective facts . We also recommend that kill leeches in front of the patient . If leeches had to be killed after treatment , the animals should be frozen and placed in a solution of 90 % alcohol a few days later .

Itching local .

Transient leech bites itch in place within the first few days after treatment is very common and should not be mistaken for an allergic reaction . In a study of the efficacy of leech therapy in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee , approximately 70 % of patients treated with leeches developed local itching that lasts an average of two days . Transient itching occurs at a frequency that is comparable , but the level of intensity is strong in many cases in which leeches were applied to the more peripheral joints , such as the thumb , but at lower levels after treatment of large joints and vertebrogenic zone , according to empirical assessment . Patients can be advised prior to treatment side effects . Patients should not scratch the bites of leeches , especially after the initial wound closure , because it often delays wound healing . We recommend local cooling solution ( curd wraps, cold moist wrap, wrap vinegar ). For more severe itching, antipruritic commercial products ( eg , ointment Fenistil ) or oral antihistamines may be used . Some experts prescribe oral antihistamines leech therapy to patients in conjunction with a known history of a severe reaction ( itching and redness of the skin ) for leech therapy . Isolated reports describe brief relapse hives are in certain situations ( eg , high temperature ) for several months after an otherwise uneventful course of leech therapy .

Hypotension and Vasovagal attack .

Patients with a history of developing vasovagal attack or syncope ( fainting ) before other invasive treatment methods also can develop a reaction like that at the start of or during leech therapy . One survey showed that vasovagal attack occurs in one of 1000 leech treatment performed in our hospital . Therefore , the leech therapist should always ask about the patient's prior history of vasovagal attack or pass out before procedures such as blood sampling or acupuncture . To guard against vasovagal attack , the patient should drink plenty of fluids before and during treatment , and treatment should always be done in a soothing environment while the patient is lying down . Two cases of hypotension and syncope outpatient Vasodepressor following leech therapy were also observed . Both patients known arterial hypertension and three antihypertensive drugs , which they continue to take as normal . A few hours after leech therapy , two patients developed a brief attack of benign syncope . It is important to remember that leeching has known antihypertensive effects when treating patients on antihypertensive drugs . Patients should drink plenty of fluids . If there is a strong flow of blood from leech bites , the patient's blood pressure should be monitored and antihypertensive medications should be adjusted as needed .

Medicinal leeches .

Approximately 600 species of leeches have been identified to date , but only about 15 are used in the treatment . Leeches classified as " medicinal leeches " , Hirudo medicinalis , in the narrow sense has been used to treat patients for centuries .
The first documented account of the use of Hirudo medicinalis for medicinal purposes dates back to the time of Hippocrates . According to Sanskrit writings , Dhavantari , the father of Indian medicine , held nectar in one hand and a leech on the other hand . Leech therapy is also used in traditional Chinese medicine . Paintings of medicinal leeches have been found in the tombs of pharaohs . The Solomon Parables also describe leech treatment use in ancient medicine . Leech therapy in the treatment of Greece can be found in the poem by Nicandros Alexipharmacia . The Roman physician Galen classified leech terapy as a method to achieve a healthy balance . Avicenna also used leeches for healing aids. In the past leeches have proven the most effective treatment in many cases. Leeches were especially useful in the treatment of battle wounds . European countries in the 18th and 19th centuries imported over 100 million leeches every year to meet the high demand .
Currently , doctors use leeches for treating abscesses , painful joints , glaucoma , myasthenia , and to heal venous diseases and thrombosis . Medical leeches are used in plastic surgery , to improve brain circulation and for the treatment of infertility .
Common indications for leech therapy are :
inflammatory reaction
Heart Disease
Rheumatic Diseases
Tendovaginitis and Tendinitis
Venous Disease and Varicose Veins
arthrosis
arthritis
muscle tension
Antidyscratic therapy ( blood purification and regeneration ) of toxicoses and mental illness
Thrombosis and embolism
Passive congestions and spastic conditions
Vertebrogenic Pain Syndromes
Transudates and exudates
A simple principle lies at the heart of all miracles - Hirudo . During feeding, leeches secrete a complex mixture of different biologically and pharmacologically active ingredients into the wound . Hirudin is the best known component of leech saliva . Hirudin is sometimes used to describe all the active substances in leech saliva . In fact , hirudin only refer to a particular active substance in leech salive . Component of leech saliva drug effects in the host's body is :
* Hirudin : Inhibits blood coagulation by binding to thrombin
* Calin : Inhibits blood clots by blocking the binding of von factors
   Willebrand for collagen . Inhibit collagen - mediated platelet aggregation
* Destabilase : Monomerizing activities . Soluble fibrin . effects of thrombolytic
* Hirustasin : Inhibits kallikrein , trypsin , chymotrypsin , cathepsin G neutropholic
* Bdellins : Anti - inflammatory . Inhibit trypsin , plasmin , acrosin
* Hyaluronidase : Increasing the viscosity of the interstitial . antibiotic
* Tryptase inhibitors : Inhibits proteolytic enzymes of host mast cells
* Eglins : Anti - inflammatory. Inhibit the activity of alpha - chymotrypsin, chymase, substilisin, elastase, cathepsin G
Inhibiting Factor Xa inhibitors : coagulation factor xa activity by forming
  equimolar complex
* Inhibitors : Complementary May possibly replace natural complement inhibitors if they lack
* Carboxypeptidase : A inhibitors Increases blood flow at the site of the bite
* Histaminelike : vasodilator substances . Increases blood flow at the site of the bite
* Acetylcholine : vasodilator
* Subsctance anesthesia : anesthesia

Effects leech bites .

Although some types of blood sucking leeches, not all species can bite,
only 90  % of their feed from decomposing bodies and open wounds of amphibians , reptiles, waterfowl, fish, and mammals ( including, but not limited to, humans ). A leech attaches when biting, and will remain attached to having a blood content. Because anticoagulant ( hirudin ) that leeches secrete , bites may bleed more than normal wound after the leech removed. Effect of anticoagulants will disappear a few hours after the leech is removed and the wound cleaned .
Leeches normally carry parasites in their digestive tract that can not survive in humans and do not pose a threat . However , bacteria , viruses , and parasites from previous blood sources can survive within a leech for months , and may be transmitted back to humans . A study found both HIV and hepatitis in African leeches from Cameroon . ( Hirudotherapy ethics therefore is always using leeches that had never been used )
Although some types of blood sucking leeches, not all species can bite, only 90% of their feed from decomposing bodies and open wounds of amphibians, reptiles, waterfowl, fish, and mammals (including, but not limited to, humans). A leech attaches when biting, and will remain attached to having a blood content. Because anticoagulant (hirudin) that leeches secrete, bites may bleed more than normal wound after the leech removed. Effect of anticoagulants will disappear a few hours after the leech is removed and the wound cleaned. Leeches normally carry parasites in their digestive tract that can not survive in humans and do not pose a threat. However, bacteria, viruses, and parasites from previous blood sources can survive within a leech for months, and may be transmitted back to humans.
A study found both HIVdan hepatitis in African leeches from Cameroon. (Hirudotherapy ethics therefore is always using leeches that had never been used).
Thank you for reading this article . Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno.
sunarnobambang86@gmail.com
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DatePublished: January 27, 2014 at 11:30
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Saturday, 13 February 2016

Did You Know The Benefits of Milk Etawa.

Benefits of Milk Milk Etawa Etawa believed to have tremendous benefits for a variety of health. It is based on research that Etawa milk contains nutrients and minerals are fairly complete. Among them, phosphorus, calcium, sodium and fluorine. Therefore, milk Etawa claimed to have benefits that almost equivalent to breastmilk.
Etawa.

By looking at the nutritional content is very diverse and complete, it is not surprising that the benefits of milk Etawa also quite numerous and varied. What are the benefits of milk Etawa? Some of the reviews about the health benefits of milk for Etawa.

Benefits and Uses Milk Etawa are :

It has a natural anti-inflammatory properties.

Milk is naturally homogenized Etawa. Fat globules contained in milk Etawa can solve themselves into smaller parts when compared to cow's milk. It is beneficial to facilitate digestion and absorption of food by the body.

For people who suffer from bowel problems or gastrointestinal disorders caused by inflammation, milk Etawa very good to eat. Probiotic properties found in milk Etawa can encourage the development of the digestive system better.

Contains essential fatty acids.

Etawa milk contains about 35% higher fatty acids when compared to cow's milk only has 17%. In addition, milk Etawa more pronounced efficacy when taken in a raw state. Even for those who are lactose intolerant. Milk Etawa also beneficial for lowering high cholesterol. Antimicrobial fatty acids such as caprylic and capric acid found in milk Etawa also useful for improving the digestive system.

Improve the digestive system.

As mentioned earlier, milk Etawa very good for digestive health. This milk has the ability to soothe your digestive tract and suppress hunger effectively making it very suitable for weight loss. Moreover, the absence of protein complexes in milk Etawa make less milk allergy compared with cow's milk.

Does not cause allergies.

Many people complain that turns cow's milk can make them prone to allergies and respiratory diseases. But you do not worry, milk Etawa is an alternative that is very potent and efficacious to resolve the issue. High fat content in cow's milk is the cause of the accumulation of mucus that trigger allergies. Fat globules contained in milk Etawa only one ninth of the fat present in cow's milk. Therefore, irritation of your intestines due to consumption of milk can be avoided.

Acting as a metabolic agent.

Research and studies conducted on milk Etawa concluded that milk is closely related Etawa increased ability to absorb iron and copper, especially in people who have impaired digestive system.

Rich in calcium.

Although people consume cow's milk to increase calcium intake and prevent osteoporosis, you should also try Etawa milk because milk Etawa very rich in calcium and amino acid tryptophan.

As good nutrition and natural.

Goats are known as bio-organic sodium animals because efficacious to improve morale, flexibility and vitality for those who like to consume goat milk. Sodium bio-organic elements that keep joints supple and healthy. In addition, milk Etawa also widely used as a drug to maintain and regenerate the nervous system.

Can treat tuberculosis and asthma.

Milk Etawa it can be used as a medicine to cure tuberculosis and asthma because it contains Fluorine and Betakasein. In addition, milk Etawa also beneficial for those who have problems with breathing.

Good for pregnant and lactating mothers.

Another benefit of milk Etawa named as additional nutrition for pregnant women. In addition, the impact of milk consumption in pregnant women Etawa will nourish the fetus as well. As for nursing mothers, milk Etawa good to facilitate breastfeeding.

Can nourish the skin.

Did you know that milk Etawa it can be used as face masks and scrubs. This method is useful for smoothing the skin and tightens pores so free from various skin problems such as acne.

Benefits of Milk Etawa For Body And Skin.

Like any other milks, milk Etawa also very well taken by all ages because it is very beneficial for health. Of the value of the nutrients, milk Etawa not inferior to other milks, milk even Etawa has several advantages which are very striking. Milk Etawa also recommended consumed for the growth of the baby, pregnant women, breast-feeding mothers, the elderly, and also for healing various diseases as well as for skin beauty. Etawa milk can also be processed into milk powder, cheese, and other dairy products using.

Regarding Milk Mistaken assumption Etawa.

The myth that assumes that goat's milk should not be consumed by people with hypertension (high blood pressure) is not true. The content of "Potassium (Potassium)" contained in the milk Etawa it serves to control blood pressure and may reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke.

Content of Milk Etawa.

Results of research conducted by the United State Department of Agriculture (USDA) shows dairy nutrition Etawa approaching perfect composition of breast milk. Every 100 grams of goat milk contains 3-4% protein, 4-7% fat, 4.5% carbohydrates, 134 grams of calcium and 111 g of phosphorus. The chemical composition Etawa milk contains proteins, fats, carbohydrates, calories, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, sodium, potassium, vitamin A, B1 (IU), B2 (mg), B6, B12, C, D, E, Niacin , V, Pantotenant Acid, Choline and Inositol. Children who consume goat milk has good bone density, increased hemoglobin levels, as well as the adequacy of vitamin A, B1, B2 and B3 are essential for the growth and development of brain and nerve cells. Amino acids containing sulfur element methionine, cystine and cysteine essential for building healthy brain and nervous system, as well as play a role in the formation of blood cells antidote (detoxification) of hazardous chemicals into the body.

Excess Milk Etawa.

- In terms of nutrition, composition, and the nature, Milk Etawa composition and chemical properties of natural breast milk contains close.
- Have antiseptic properties, natural and can help reduce the breeding of bacteria in the body. This is caused the presence of Fluorine are 10-100 times greater than in cow's milk.
- Is wet (Alkaline Food) that is safe for the body.
- Protein lactase its effect soft and lightweight, so it does not cause diarrhea.
- Protein content contained better than eggs.
- Fat is easily digested because it has a soft and smooth texture is smaller than the grain fat cow's milk or other milk. Homogeneous and also be experienced.
- This makes it easier to digest so that suppress the onset of allergic reactions.
- Milk Etawa can be ingested by humans 20 minutes faster than the other milk.
- Efficacy for the Health of Dairy Ingredients Etawa
- Etawa milk contains sodium (Na), fluorine (F), Calcium (C), and phosphorus (P) as the dominant chemical elements and other nutritional content.

Milk Etawa has a property :

- Helps digestion and neutralize stomach acid.
- As a healing therapy of asthma, tuberculosis and acute lung infection chronic.
- Helps to treat allergic skin and other organs.
- Increase stamina and endurance.
- Addressing the problem of impotence / frigidity and increase the vitality of adult men and women.
- Efficacious for patients with abnormal renal function or in the medical world called neprotic syndrome.
- Efficacious as a healing therapy uric acid.
- Efficacious for bone formation, is highly recommended for those who suffer from rheumatism and prevent bone loss / OSTEOPHOROSIS.
- Helping to provide nutrition and other metabolic disorders.
- Helps smooth the skin because it has no milk Etawa in the form of soap.
Thank you for reading this article. Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno. sunarnobambang86@gmail.com
author:
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name: Bambang Sunarno.
http://primadonablog.blogspot.com/2015/02/did-you-know-the-benefits-of-milk-etawa.html
DatePublished: 13 February 2015 at 18:58
Tags : Did You Know The Benefits of Milk Etawa, Etawa, Milk Etawa.
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Monday, 29 June 2015

X-rays And X-ray To Work.


A German physicist named Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen was doing experiments with electron beams in a gas discharge tube. Suddenly she watched her luminous events a fluorescent screen hers who happened to be near the gas discharge tube when the electron beam is turned on. Under normal circumstances, events luminescence fluorescent screen was not something strange, considering that the fluorescent material is indeed material will fluoresce in response to an electromagnetic wave. However, the events experienced such Röntgen, he actually has covered the gas discharge tube with a fairly thick cardboard and are colored black. The assumption, with thick black cardboard eletromagnet radiation can not escape because it is blocked by a thick cardboard.

Röntgen tried putting various objects between the tube with a fluorescent screen. The result is still phosphorescent screen. The most surprising, Röntgen asked his wife to put his hand between the tube and the screen, and the result is a shadow silhouette of his bones, complete with a circular ring on the ring finger Ny. Röntgen. Such was the origin of the discovery of a type of light, which he called Röntgen X-ray, which has significance in the medical world.

X-ray, which was found accidentally, it is used to perform X-Ray photograph in the hospital. With the photo, the doctor can see the patient through flesh to inspect the broken or fractured bones, or objects that might be caught in the throat of the patient, with incredible ease.

What's that X-ray? How can he penetrate certain materials?

X-rays are essentially "brothers" with visible light. Ie light which cause we can see around us. They are part of the electromagnetic wave spectrum and we know that electromagnetic waves consist of packets of energy called photons. the difference between X-rays to visible light photon energy lies in arranging, and photon energy is related to the wavelength. X-ray photon energy larger than the energy of visible light photons. Because the photon energy is inversely proportional to its wavelength, it can be said that the wavelength of X-ray photons are shorter than the wavelength of visible light photons. Unfortunately we are only able to catch the eyes of a specific wavelength which incidentally is the wavelength of visible light is only possessed by so we were not able to see the X-rays.

Neither X-ray photons and photons of visible light, both produced by the movement of electrons in atoms. We know that electrons occupy certain energy levels, which we call orbitals, around the nucleus. If an electron falls into a lower energy level, then the electron must expend a certain amount of energy, and this energy is released in the form of photons. Regardless of the energy of photons depends on how deep the target orbit of the electron.

How excited atoms.

At the time of a photon impingement other atoms, atoms which pounded will absorb the photon energy is pounding and trigger an electron in an atom is to move to a higher orbit. One requirement that must be met for it, namely energy photons striking the atoms must be equal to the difference between the two orbits of electrons. Otherwise, the photons are not able to shift the atomic electrons.

The atoms of our body skin absorbs photons of visible light very well. The energy possessed by the photons of visible light is fit to the difference between the energy levels of the atoms making our skin. For other types of electromagnetic waves, such as radio wave energy possessed by its photons are insufficient to create a body of atomic electrons move to higher energy levels. That's why radio waves will penetrate almost any material. X-rays are also able to penetrate many materials (ingredients) but not because it has less energy, but because the energy possessed by its photons actually very large. Energy X-ray photons can even cause the atomic electrons ejected from the atom. Some of the energy of X-ray photons can separate the electron from the atom, and the rest causes the electrons to drift in the air. Larger atoms more easily absorb photons of X-rays, because larger atoms that has a difference of levels greater energy anyway. While atoms are smaller, the difference between the electron energy levels (orbits) smaller, more difficult to absorb the X-rays; which means more permeable X-rays.

Soft layer of our skin is composed of atoms that are small, so it can not absorb X-rays or X-rays pass on well. Calcium atoms which is a constituent atom of our bones have a much larger atoms so that the atoms absorb the X-rays so difficult to penetrate bone X-rays. To use X-rays to perform X-ray in the field of medicine, the necessary equipment emitting X-rays. How this X-ray emitter work?

How It Works X-ray machine.

The workings of the X-ray machine for X-ray.

The main part of the X-ray machine is a pair of electrodes, the cathode and anode, which is placed in a vacuum glass tube. The cathode is made from a filament that is heated, as is commonly found on older models of incandescent lamps. Electric current on X-ray machines transmitter is passed through the filament so that the filament gets hot. As a result, electrons emitted from the filament surface. Positively charged anode, made of tungsten flat circular, attract electrons to form an electron beam from the cathode to the anode in the tube.

Between the cathode and anode were given a very large potential difference, so that a beam of electrons to flow in a tube with a very high energy. When these high-energy electrons at the anode mashing tungsten atom, an electron which is at a relatively low orbit of the tungsten atoms will be thrown to leave the place. Another electrons are in higher orbit will soon fall to fill the empty places in the lower orbital electrons that had been abandoned. Because the electron falls from a higher orbital to a lower orbital, then the process will be released photons. in this event, the fall of electrons originating from the energy level is much higher, so that the resulting photon is also a photon with enough energy high, ie photons of X-rays.

Free electrons can also generate photons without mashing an atom. This happens because an atomic nucleus that attracts electrons that move freely will cause the moving electrons will experience a slowdown. Slowdown or reduction in speed occurs in a manner that fairly quickly. This speed change will cause a release of energy in the form of X-ray photons.

A very powerful collision of events in the process of formation of X-rays will generate heat. To avoid melting the anode as a result of this heat, the X-ray emitter machine there is a rotating anode motor. Thus, the electron beam is not always mashing the same part of the anode. In addition there is also oil in the engine coolant that absorbs the heat.

All around the X-ray device of this, fitted with a thick barrier of lead material. This is to keep the X-rays radiating out in all directions. To channel the X-ray beam produced, made a small hole in the barrier layer. Prior to this X-ray of the patient's body to be photographed, X-rays will pass through a number of filters (filter) according to the needs.

A camera on the other side of the patient will record the pattern of X-rays that pass through the patient's body. The X-ray camera using film technology similar to regular film cameras (not digital cameras). The difference is that chemical reactions on photographic film caused by X-rays instead of visible light rays as in a regular film camera.

Generally, doctors use X-ray directly results in the form of a film negative. You've seen the film negatives and how it works is not it? We used to call negative film with the terms photogravure. On the negative film, the part exposed to much light will appear darker compared with fewer parts exposed to light. Hard objects, such as bones, appear white on the film while the objects are softer, for example skin, will appear black or gray.

X-rays it dangerous for our bodies?

X-rays are an important tool in medicine since it allows a physician a patient without cutting it. It's much easier and safer to inspect a bone using X-rays rather than dissect the skin and flesh to examine the bones.

However, excessive X-rays will harm our body. X-ray radiation is one type of ionizing radiation, ie the radiation which can cause ionize atoms. If a normal light on the atom, the light can not change the subject atom significantly. Another case when X-rays on an atom. If the X-ray mashing an atom, the atom the electron can be ejected leaving atoms to form ions, which are electrically charged atoms. Electrons are thrown into free and can grind other atoms thus producing more ions again.

These electrically charged ions can produce unusual chemical reactions in the cell. Even can damage our DNA chain. cells undergoing DNA damage will die or mutate. The more DNA is dead, then the body will cause various kinds of diseases. If the DNA is mutated, cells can undergo cancerous, and this cancer can spread. So, although X-rays is very meaningful in the medical world, you should be careful not too often do Röntgen photo.
Thank you for reading this article. Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno. sunarnobambang86@gmail.com
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DatePublished: June 29, 2015 at 15:15
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Did You Know History of discovery of X-ray.

X-rays (or X-ray) was discovered by the Germans a physics professor who served in the University of Wurzburg, Bavaria, Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen on 8 November 1895. Prof Fizik get this beam has an impressive ability to produce images on film in photography after penetrating wipes, clothing and metal.

Rongent image results.
Continue the study, Roentgen obtain crystalline barium salt platinosianida shines when in place adjacent to the cathode ray tube is closed. He also found that photographic plate covered placed adjacent to the cathode ray will be black. From here the conclusion can be made that X-rays can not be seen, moving in a straight line and has a high penetration power, which can penetrate opaque objects for ordinary light rays. Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, who was born on March 25, 1845 was the first discovered X-rays.

After that, Roentgen rays showed it came from the glass walls berpendaflour cathode ray light when exposed to it. To validate this discovery, he has run a quick experiment. In this experiment, he put one screen coated with barium platinosianida in the trajectory of X-rays. This screen will glow when exposed to X-rays. By putting his hand between the cathode-ray tube and the screen, the shadow of a hand with the bones in it clearly visible in this screen. It may prove that X-rays coming out of the cathode ray tube has a high penetration power.

In medicine, x-rays can be used to view the condition of the bones, teeth and other organs without surgery directly on the patient's body.
Usually, ordinary people refer to as' 'X-rays'. Useful addition, x-rays have the effect / impact is very harmful to our bodies which if used in excess it can lead to dangerous diseases, such as cancer. Therefore, the doctors do not recommend overuse '' X-rays '' excessive.

LOSSES SINAR X

After the X-ray shows the results of the photo shoot with X-rays of the hand of his wife who wears a ring, where the image is clearly visible vertebrae of her fingers, then people begin to realize the great benefits that can be gained from the discovery of ionizing radiation earlier. Utilization of ionizing radiation in medicine, especially X-rays, growing rapidly while after the discovery of the radiation. Mastery of knowledge about ionizing radiation by human beings continue to increase over time also allows the radiation exploited in various fields of activities outside of medicine, in addition to its use in the field of medicine itself is also constantly increasing.

Some adverse effects that arise in the human body because terpapari X-rays and gamma immediately observed some time after the discovery of two types of radiation. The adverse effects such as hair loss and skin damage. In 1897 in the United States reported 69 cases of skin damage caused by X-rays, while in 1902 the numbers increased to 170 cases reported. In 1911 in Germany also reported 94 cases of tumors caused by X-rays. Although some of the adverse effects of X-rays and gamma has been observed, but the protection against the dangers of radiation X-rays and gamma is not unthinkable. Marie Curie, the discoverer of the radioactive material Po and Ra died in 1934 due stricken by leukemia. The disease is likely due to radiation exposure because he often associated with radioactive materials.

USE LIGHT X

Treatment.

Soft X-rays are used to take still images, known as radiographs. X-rays may penetrate the human body but is absorbed by a portion which is more dense as bone. X-ray images are used for the detection of bone defects, the detection of broken bones and investigate the state of the organs in the body.
Hard X-rays are used to destroy cancer cells. This method is known as radiotherapy

Industry.

In the industrial sector, X-rays may be used to, the detection of disability in the target structures or the parts inside the machine and engine.
investigate fractures in metal pipes, concrete walls and high pressure steamer. check for cracks in the plastic structure and sap.

Investigation

X-rays are used for probing crystal structure and the separation distance between atoms in a crystal material.
Investigate fractures in metal pipes, concrete walls and high pressure steamer. Checking cracks in the plastic structure and sap.
X-rays are used for probing crystal structure and the separation distance between atoms in a crystal material.

X-rays impression

Although X-rays are very useful to humans, but excessive exposure to X-rays may cause, destruction of cells in the body.
Changes in the genetic structure of a cell.
Severe cancer illness.
Bad impressions such as hair loss, skin becomes red and ulcerous.

The properties of the X-ray

X-rays can be obtained rather than a type of electronic device called tiub x-ray. Rather than study scientists have found X-ray certain properties that can be allotted to the usual properties and characteristics.

a) General properties

X-rays moving pace and straight.
Should not be focused by lenses or mirrors and may not be dipesong by the magnetic field around the direction heading path.
Abide by the rules 'Legal Counsel Two Songsang' ie ray observations changed by the power of two Songsang distance than the stem jets.

b) The nature of the typical

Efforts to penetrate solid objects.
Impression glow - giving the impression of light to chemical compounds such as zinc sulfide, calcium tungstate and barium platinosiamida.
Photographic impression - giving blackening to be exposed to the film when the X-rays.

Ionizing impression - the flow of X-rays that pass through the gas transfer energy to the molecules so be broken to the positively charged particles and negatively. Biology impression - X-rays act with all these living tissue contained in the body.

Types of another wave

Examples of various wavelengths of electromagnetic rays is as follows: -

· Radio waves 1cm - 3 x 105 cm
· The light beam - 4 x 10-5 cm - 7 x 10-5 cm
· Ultraviolet rays - 10-5 cm - 7 x 10-5 cm
· X-rays - 10-7 -10-9 cm cm
· Gamma rays - 10-9 cm
· Cosmic rays - <10-10 cm
Thank you for reading this article. Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno. sunarnobambang86@gmail.com
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DatePublished: June 29, 2015 at 14:27
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Saturday, 27 June 2015

Various Genital Diseases.


Already know various kinds of venereal disease? If not, the following information may be useful to identify various venereal diseases, sexually transmitted diseases and healing.
Venereal disease is a type of disease caused by germs that are transmitted through oral sex as well as through relationships between the sexes. Therefore, to avoid venereal disease is advised not to have sex arbitrary and not blindly. Faithful to pair or use safety devices such as condoms are alternatives.
Most of the venereal disease so far has found a cure, but the disease Aids is not only transmitted through sexual intercourse but mostly transmitted through needles.

Some venereal diseases along with the bacteria that causes it and a glimpse of the way of prevention and treatment, which in said Dr. Taylor of Health Awareness Connection (HAC), Broklyn USA :

Gonorrhea and Chlamydia

Caused by bacteria. The infection starts a few days to several weeks after sexual intercourse with an infected person's genitals;
In men, genital diseases cause discharge of male genitalia. Urination can be a pain. These symptoms can feel heavy or not felt at all;
Symptoms of gonorrhea in women is usually very mild or not felt at all, but if untreated venereal disease can be severe and cause infertility;
Venereal disease can be cured with antibiotics if treated early.

HERPES

Herpes disease.

Caused by a virus, can be treated but not curable;
Symptoms appear between 3 to 10 days after having sex with this venereal disease;
The initial symptoms appear as blisters which then opens into the small hole and watery;
Within 5 to 10 days the symptoms disappear;
The virus can persist in the body and reappear something current, and sometimes frequently;
Women often do not realize that he was suffering from herpes because of blisters occur in the vagina.

INFECTION MUSHROOMS

Caused by the fungus;
Causing red irritation under the skin of a man who is not circumcised;
In women going beyond the thick white fluid that causes itching;
Can be treated with antifungal creams.

Syphilis

Caused by bacteria. Lesions appear between 3 weeks to 3 months after having sex with this venereal disease;
The wound looks like a hole in the skin with a higher edge. In general, do not hurt;
The wound will disappear after a few weeks, but the virus will persist in the body and venereal disease can appear in the form of blisters on the whole body bruises will disappear as well, and the virus will attack other body parts;
Syphilis can be cured at any stage by penicillin;
In women lesions can be hidden in the vagina.

VAGINISTIS

Infection of the vagina that usually causes vaginal discharge that smells and cause discomfort;
Caused by various types of bacteria (bacteria gonorrhea, chlamydia) or a fungus;
Also can be caused by various bacteria are not harmful indeed settle in the vagina;
Can be investigated by examining the vaginal fluid under a microscope;
In general can be cured with the right medication in accordance with the cause.

Ulcers on the genitals

Caused by a virus (Human Papilloma Virus or HPV);
Appears in the form of one or more sores or bumps between a month to a year after having sex with the venereal disease;
In general, can not be seen in women because it is located inside the vagina, or in men because it is too small. Can be tested with a layer of vinegar;
Can be serious in women because it can cause cervical cancer;
Genital ulcers can be cured, she must run a pap smear every time changed intimate partner.

BUG SEX

Very small (less than or equal to 1/8 inch), brownish-gray colored, settled on pubic hair;
Can be treated with a liquid medicine that is rubbed on the pubic hair.

TICKS UNDER SKIN

Similar to genital lice, but smaller in size and settled under the skin;
Causing minor injuries and itching all over the body;
Treated with a liquid medicine that is rubbed into the whole body;
Clothing, bed linens and towels must be washed after treatment, because lice can live on fabrics stretcher.

AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) / HIV DISEASE

Venereal disease as a result of the most serious intimate relationships, causing no operation of the immune system;
There are no real symptoms without blood research;
Can cause death after ten years after infection with HIV, but treatment (not cure in total) have been found;
Spread through sexual intercourse and sharing needles simultaneously.
Thank you for reading this article. Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno. sunarnobambang86@gmail.com
author:
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DatePublished: June 27, 2015 at 16:24
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Basic Skills Surgical Technique With Suture Material Sciences.


Chapter I

Preliminary.

Knowledge required suturing wounds in surgery because the surgery makes cuts and sutures aiming to reunite the severed tissue and improve the process of grafting and tissue healing and also prevents open wound that will result in the entry of microorganisms / infection.

Suturing material quality is covering certain conditions. The first is the convenience to be used or to be held. Then sufficient protection on each appliance. Should always sterile. Fairly elastic. Not made of reactive materials. Enough power to wound healing. The ability for biodegradation of chemicals to prevent the destruction of foreign bodies.

Chapter II

Suture material.

The use of tools and material quality tailoring is covering certain conditions. The first is the convenience to be used or to be held. Then sufficient protection on each appliance. Should always sterile. Fairly elastic. Not made of reactive materials. Enough power to wound healing. The ability for biodegradation of chemicals to prevent the destruction of foreign bodies.

II.a. Instruments.

1. Needle holder.

Another name or nald voeder needle holder.
Kind used varies, the type of wood Crille (shaped like a clamp) and the type of Mathew Kusten (triangular shape). To this the suturing needle holder as the holder of a sewing needle and thread as concluding.

 Tipe Crille wood.

                                                  Type of wood Crille



 Mathew types Kusten.

                                                   Mathew types Kusten



  Needle Holder.

                                                       Needle Holder

2. Cut.

* Scissors Yarn.

There are two kinds of scissors thread scissors yarn is crooked and straight usefulness for thread cutting operation, smoothed the wound. Provision of each of the pieces.

* Cut out dissection.

Scissors, there are two types, namely straight and crooked. Usually tapered edges. There are two frequently used, the type and the type of Metzenbaum Mayo. The usefulness of this scissors is to open up the network, freeing small tumor from the surrounding tissue, to esksplorasi and smoothing the wound.


dissecting scissors.

dissecting scissors

dissecting scissors.


* Scissors bandages / dressings.

Usefulness is to cut bandages and plasters.

Scissors bandages / dressings.

3. Knife Surgery.

      Consisting of two parts, namely the handle and the blade (mess / bistouri / blade). In the old model scalpels, blades and handles together, so that when the blades should be sharpened blunt back. In the new model, the blades can be replaced. Usually the blade is only to be disposable.

      There are two numbers handle of a knife that is often used, namely handles number 4 (for large blade) and the handle number 3 (for a small blade). This is in order scalpel to cut various organs / parts of the body. Blade adapted to the body part to be slashed.
Knife Surgery.
                       

Knife Surgery.

Knife Surgery.

Knife Surgery.

4. Clamp (Clamp).

* Clamps pean artery.

There are two types, namely straight and crooked. Its purpose is to hemostasis especially for thin and soft tissue.

Clamps pean artery.


* Clamps Kocher.

There are two types of clamps are straight and crooked. Not intended for hemostasis. Distinctive trait is to have teeth on the edges (like teeth on sirurgis tweezers). The point is to clamp the tissue, especially in order not to miss the tissue clamp, and this is made possible by the teeth on the tip of the clamp.

Clamps Kocher.


* Clamps Mosquito.

Similar to clamp the artery pean, but size, smaller. Its use is for hemostasis, especially for thin and soft tissue.

Clamps Mosquito.


* Clamps Allis.

Its use is for soft tissue clamping and clamping a small tumor.

Clamps Allis.


* Clamp Babcock.

Its use is to clamp tumor rather large and fragile.

Clamp Babcock.

* Towel clamp (clamp Doek).

Its use is to clamp doek / fabric operation.

Towel clamp (clamp Doek).

5. Retractors (Wound Hook).


* Retractors langenbeck.

Its use is unfold the wound.

 Retractors langenbeck.


* US army double ended retractor.

Its use to uncover the wound.

US army double ended retractor.


* Retractors Volkman.

Its use is to uncover the wound. The use of adjusted to the width of the wound retractor. Nothing has two gears, 3 gear and 4 gear. 2 gears for small wounds, 4 gear for large wounds. There is also a blunt-toothed retractor.

Retractors Volkman.

6. Needle.

      Many kinds. For sewing leather used which have a triangular for easy slicing the skin (scherpe nald). Is being used to sew the muscles which have a round (round nald). There are semicircular and there is also a form of a quarter circle.

      Its use is to stitch the wound and sew other damaged organs. Provision of customized needs.

Needle operation.


7. Tweezers

    - Tweezers sirurgis.

Its use is to clamp tissue during the dissection and suturing wounds, members of marks on the skin before the start of the incision.

   - Tweezers anatomical.

Its use is to pinch the screen while pressing the wound, pinning thin and soft tissue.

Tweezers.

8. Yarn.

* Seide / silk.

Made of silk fibers, fibers composed of 70% protein and 30% additional material such as adhesive. It was black and white. Silk is not as slick as usual because it was combined with an adhesive. Is not absorbed by the body. On the use of on the outside, the thread should be reopened.

Available in various sizes, ranging from the number 00000 (5 zeros is the smallest size for the surgery department) to number 3 (which is the largest size). The most commonly used is the number 00 (2 zero) and 0 (1 zero) and the number one. The greater the smaller its many zeros thread

Its purpose is to sew leather, tying the arteries (especially the large arteries), as teugel (control).

Yarn must be sterile, because if not will be a nest of germs (focal infections), since the bacteria are protected in the stitching thread, while the thread itself can not be absorbed by the body.

* Plain catgut.

Originally he is cat (cat) and the gut (intestine). The first thread is made from the intestines of cats, but this time made from the intestines of sheep or cow intestines. Can be absorbed by the body, the absorption takes place within 7-10 days, and the color is white and yellowish.

Available in various sizes, ranging from 00000 (5 zeros which is the smallest size) to number 3 (the largest size). Frequently used numbers 000 (3 zeros), 00 (2 zero), 0 (1 zero), the number 1 and number 2.

Its purpose is to bind small source of bleeding, sewing subcutaneous and can also be used to sew up loose skin, especially for the area (abdomen, face) that is not a lot of moving and extensive small wound.

Plain catgut should be knotted at least 3 times, because the body will expand, if concluded two times will be open again. Plain catgut should not be submerged in lisol because it will expand and become soft, making it unusable.

* Chromic catgut.

In contrast to plain catgut, before the spun yarn is added chrome. With the chrome, then the thread will be harder and stronger, and longer absorption, ie 20-40 days. The color is brown and bluish. This yarn is available in sizes 000 (3 zeros is the smallest size) to number 3.

Its use in suturing wounds that are considered not docked within ten days, to sew the tendon in patients who are not cooperative and when mobilization should be done immediately.

* Nylon. (Dafilon, monosof, dermalonEthilon).

A synthetic yarn in packaging atraumatis (direct yarn together with a sewing needle) and made of nylon, strong leboh of seide or catgut. Is not absorbed by the body, and does not cause irritation to the skin or other body tissue.

The color is dark blue. Available in sizes 10 to one zero zero. Penggunanan on plastic surgery, larger size commonly used skin, a small number used in eye surgery.

* Ethibond.

A synthetic yarn (made from polytetra methylene adipate). Available in packs atraumatis. Gentle, strong, body reaction to a minimum, it is not absorbed, and the colors green and white. The size of 7 zero to number 2. Its use in cardiovascular surgery and urology.

* Vitalene / prolene / surgilen.

A synthetic yarn (made from polymer profilen). Very strong and soft, are not absorbed, blue. Available in packs atraumatis. The size of the 10 zero to number 1. Used in microsurgery, particularly for heart and blood vessels, eye surgery, plastic surgery, is also suitable for sewing leather.


* Poly glicolic As Polisorb, Dexon, Vicryl.

A synthetic yarn in packaging atraumatis. Absorbed by the body, and does not cause a reaction in the body tissues. In subcutaneous last for three weeks, the muscle last for 3 months. This yarn is very soft and the color purple.

The size of the 10 zero to number 1. Usage on eye surgery, orthopedics, urology and plastic surgery.

* Supramid.

A synthetic yarn, in packaging atraumatis. Is strong, soft, flexible, minimum body reaction and not absorbed. It was black and white. Used to sew cutis and subcutaneous.

* Linen (catoon).

Made with natural cotton fiber by way of spinning. Gentle, strong enough and easily knotted, not absorbed, the body's reaction to a minimum, are white.

Available in 4 sizes zero to one zero. Used to sew the intestine and skin, especially facial skin.

* Steel wire.

A metallic thread made of stainless steel polifilamen. Very strong, non-corrosive, and reaction to the minimum body. Easily knotted. Metallic white color. Contained in packaging and packaging atraumatis usual. The size of 6 zero to number 2. To sew the tendon.

Chapter III.

Suture technique.

III.1. GOAL

Basic stitches are making adequate pressure on the wound closed without distance but also loose enough to avoid ischemia and necrosis. Stitches can also aim to take care of hemostasis or bleeding that occurs. Can be for first aid measures. Reduce post-operative pain. Stitching is also the maker of the bond restrictions on the network until healed and no longer needed. Stitches can also prevent bone that may be exposed to healing old wounds and resorption that is not necessary. It is also necessary in action flap.

III.2. Suture principle.

Full knot should be tight, and strong so it will not be separated. To avoid bacterial infection, the knot is placed on the incision line. Knot should be made small. Do not tie too tight to avoid damaging the threads. Do not do a lot of movement that would damage the stitches. Avoid damaging the material hecting by pinning using needle holder except when going binding. Do not be too strong feared necrosis. Traction should be adequate.

III. 3. TYPES stitches.

Interrupted sutures.

Most used because it is simple and easy. Each stitch knotted itself. Can be carried on the skin or other body parts, and is suitable for areas that many moves because each stitch mutually supporting one another.

Interrupted sutures (interupted suture), each node stands alone. In cosmetics coarse yarn / large or tense when menyimpulnya will give the former is less good, that bleak picture of a centipede.

Interrupted sutures.

Stitches single node.

Synonyms: Disconnected Stitches Simple, Simple Inerrupted Suture. Is a frequently used type of stitch. Also used for stitching the situation.


Technique :

** Do needling with the distance between half to 1 cm edge of the wound and tissue subkutannya simultaneously take all the needle is perpendicular to the direction of the line or injuries.

** Single Node done with absorbable thread to the distance between 1cm.

** Node in place on the edge of the wound on one of the puncture.

** The thread is cut approximately 1 cm.

Stitch mattress Horizontal

Synonyms: Horizontal Mattress suture, Interrupted mattress
Stitches by stabbing like a knot, before knotted followed by stabbing aligned as far as 1 cm from the first stitch.
Gives a strong seam.

Horizontal Mattress suture

Horizontal Mattress suture


Vertical Stitch Mattress.

Synonyms: Vertical Mattress suture, Donati, Near to near and far to far.
Sew seams with depth below the wound was followed by sewing the edges of the wound. Usually produces rapid wound healing because in dekatkannya edges of the wound by stitching it.

Stitch Matras Modifications

Synonyms: Half Buried Mattress Suture
Modification of horizontal mattress stitch the wound area but across the region subkutannya.
Half Buried Mattress Suture

Continuous stitching.

Often called doorloven. Knot only on the ends of the seams, so there are only two nodes. Let one of these stitches will open it fully open. This suture is rarely used to sew leather. In cosmetic scar as the interrupted sutures. Continuous sutures can be done faster than interrupted sutures.

Continuous stitching.

Continuous stitching.

Stitch baste simple.

Synonyms: Simple running suture, Simple continuous, continuous over and over
This seam is very simple, the same as we baste shirt. Usually produces good cosmetic results, its use is not recommended in loose connective tissue.

Simple running suture.

Stitch baste Feston.

Synonyms: Running locked suture, suture Interlocking
Continuous stitching with thread linking the previous stitch, used often used in stitching the peritoneum. Is a variation of the usual running suture.

Running locked suture.

Stitch baste horizontal.

Synonyms: Horizontal Running suture
Interspersed with a continuous seam stitching horizontal direction.
    

Stitches intradermal.

      Memeberikan most excellent cosmetic results (only a single line only). Can not be used for areas that many moves. Most good for the face. There are various modifications of this intradermal stitches. It takes a lot of practice to memahirkan this way intradermal suturing.

Stitches intrakutan knot.

Synonyms: Subcutaneus interupted suture, Buried intradermal suture, Interrupted dermal stitch.
Suture knot on intrakutan area, usually used to sew area in the later sewn on the outside as well with a simple knot.

Stitches baste intrakutan.

Synonyms: Running subcuticular suture, Suture baste subcuticular
Baste stitches were done under the skin, stitching is known to produce good cosmetic


CHAPTER IV

CONCLUSION.

Suture material

Berkualiatas suturing material is covering certain conditions. The first is the convenience to be used or to be held. Then sufficient protection on each appliance. Should always sterile. Fairly elastic. Not made of reactive materials. Enough power to wound healing. The ability for biodegradation of chemicals to prevent the destruction of the object or suturing wounds need some good preparation tools, materials and some other equipment. The sequence technique should also be understood by the operator and his assistant.

Tools needed:
-- Naald Voeder (Needle Holder) or the needle holder is usually the fruit.
-- Surgical tweezers Tweezers Chirrurgis or one fruit
-- Cut a piece of yarn.
-- sewing needle, depending on the size of just two pieces only.

Materials needed:
- seide sewing thread or silk
- Sewing Thread Cat gut chromic and plain.

Etc:
* Doek sterile hole
* sterile gauze
* sterile Handscoon

Surgery techniques.
Sequence wound suturing techniques (suture techniques)
1. Preparation tools and materials
2. Preparation of assistant and operator
3. Disinfection of the operating field
4. Anesthesia operating field
5. debridement and excision of the wound edges
6. suturing wounds
7. wound care

Various kinds of stitches:
1. Single Node Stitches
2. Stitch mattress Horizontal
3. Vertical Stitch Mattress
4. Stitch Matras Modifications
5. Stitch baste sederhan
6. Stitches baste Feston
7. Stitch baste horizontal
8. Stitch Node intrakutan
9. Stitch baste intrakutan.
Thank you for reading this article. Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno. sunarnobambang86@gmail.com
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http://primadonablog.blogspot.com/2015/05/basic-skills-surgical-technique-with-suture-material-sciences.html
DatePublished: June 27, 2015 at 15:51
Tags : Basic Skills Surgical Technique With Suture Material Sciences.
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