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Wednesday, 16 January 2019

Welcome.

Welcome to Kediri.

By introducing the name Bambang Sunarno authors also introduce Kediri city as well as the historic birthplace and original culinary style Kediri, East Java, Indonesia.
This blog was established by Bambang Sunarno with the purpose of information, communication and knowledge.
In the town of Kediri, there are several historic sites and some of the history of Kediri.

Attractions including  :

Selomangleng cave.

Selomangleng cave.

Maskumambang lake.

Maskumambang lake.

Maria Lourdes grotto Kediri.

Maria Lourdes grotto Kediri.

Maria Lourdes cave has been known to tourists, and is known by the name Puh Sarang Church Kediri. The tourists always visit every holiday or there is an opportunity to visit with family Kediri, while Maria Lourdes grotto is a site that explains in detail the crucifixion of Jesus and also used for the followers of the Christian ritual.

Dolo Waterfall Kediri.

Dolo Waterfall Kediri.

Waterfall Dolo very attractive to newcomers from abroad or locally to enjoy the beauty of the high fountain and splashing in the gentle breeze and feel fresh.

If you want to Kelud. 

the road to the mountain kelud hot water.

Please contact the Travel Agents are available in the town of Kediri and you will get a place to take you.

culinary seller on the street Dhoho kediri.

When you visit in the evening there is a culinary providers Doho line the streets until the evening at 24.00, and for the guests do not have to worry, because every time you come there is always the hotels were good and satisfying.
Thank you for reading this article. Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno. sunarnobambang86@gmail.com
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DatePublished: 27 September 2019 at 23:16
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Friday, 27 January 2017

Did You Know About Leeches ?

 Leeches

Leeches are ' worms ' with suckers on each end. Leeches can be divided in a variety of sizes, from the size of half an inch to ten inches in length, there are leeches color brown or black color. There are some that eat decaying plants. Others are parasites, sucking the blood and other animal tissues.
blood sucking leeches in two ways : using a leech proboscis to puncture the skin or using three jaws and millions of tiny teeth. Leeches live almost anywhere there is water origin. Leeches find their prey by detecting skin oils, blood, heat or carbon dioxide even when the prey breathes.
Leeches do not often eat , this is because the leeches suck in large amounts of blood when eating.
Doctors often use leeches in the past to draw blood. Leeches are also used to perform operations and cutting hair. When the barber finished the operation,
she would take a bloody bandage and wrap around the pole to show that he was doing surgery. That's how the origin of the red and white pole circling the barber.
Now maggots and leeches are used for different reasons . Scientists are studying the saliva of leeches. They believe the substances that stop or prevent blood clots that someday could be used in humans. The researchers also identified several medical compounds that can be developed from the saliva of leeches.
The properties of anticoagulant and clot - digesting these substances makes them potentially useful as a drug for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as heart attack and stroke . Leeches can be " milked " for their secretions without being harmed, and continues to do research the possibility of engineering synthetic leech saliva. But it still used leeches to suck blood.
Doctors now turn to leeches to help restore blood circulation to grafted tissue and reattached and toes.
For example : microsurgeons at a Boston hospital used leeches to save the ears of a 5 year old boy who had been bitten by a dog died . The leech can remove all solid blood to allow normal circulation to return to the network , thus preventing gangrene from scratch .
At this time , hundreds of thousands of leeches are sold in the U.S. to hospitals , clinics and individuals the European market , much bigger and millions of leeches are sold every year .

Hirudotherapy.

Hirudotherapy is treatment using medical leeches . This type of therapy is known from extreme antiquity and is still alive today . This fact shows effectiveness in healing various diseases . Currently Hirudotherapy method approved by many countries .

Hirudotherapy is treatment using medical leeches

Great experience using medicinal leeches in medical purpose kept up for centuries With the development of science covert action mechanism described leech salivary glands , are biologically active substances included in it was introduced to the public , the influence of leeches on the particular structure of a living organism has been investigated . Some medical forms are made on the basis of biologically active substances from the salivary glands of leeches and work on the creation of a new substance that is by doing a modern Hirudotherapy different from the old-fashioned because now we do not use the wild leeches , instead we use leeches that live in the wild , especially where they are in a natural condition that dirty , we currently use a leech only once .
The advantages are obvious and absolute safety Hirudotherapy checked on thousands of years of human experience and not cause doubts . One of the first substance that is found in the salivary glands of medicinal leeches is hirudin , a substance that thins the blood clotting process , anticoagulating as destabilaza fermentation , ingibitors of plazmine , callecrein of plasmine and others .
Factors diffusion - ferments of gialuronidaza , collagenaza , appressing factors mediators of pain - cininaza , antisclerous factors are also investigated . Thus , medicinal leeches are manufacturing biologically active substances . The result of the action of biologically active substances on living organisms are ;
- Normalization and improvement of capillary circulation ;
- Declare antiinflammatory effects ;
- Antistressful and adaptogene effect ;
- Immunostimulants and immunomodulating effects ;
- Anesthesia ;
- Anticoagulation ;
- Antibacterial Effect ;
- Improvement of the endocellular exhange and realization of this mechanism has both local and general character .
The existence of skin-visceral connection with the organs are definitely famous. biologically active substances act to organ for blood -sucking leeches drug action through Viens. This prompted an increase in blood circulation in specific organs, making trombolitic , anti-inflammatory , immunostimulant action , improve nutrition of tissues , strengthen the immune network . It is impossible for all the diseases that can be treated by using Hirudotherapy , contra - indications with Hirudotherphy is hemophilia , pregnancy , anemia , hypotonia .
Hirudotherapy can be applied to any disease known at this time . It can be used as an independent method of treatment and in a complex with other people to know . Doctors know exactly how difficult it is to struggle with chronic inflammatory diseases. The problem is in all types of clinical presentation of the disease organism protection mechanisms are universal-emission inflammatory mediators, vazoconstrictors , apireties and some other biologically active substances into the blood . Everything comes to the aspirations of living organisms to limit the nidus of inflammation by a decrease in blood circulation and capillary permeability - network , the creation of a shaft with conjunctive tissue inflammation and cellular structure and mode of temperature in the area . Given as a result of the concentration of the drug for instance an antibiotic in the nidus of inflammation is much lower than in the blood . Increasing doses of chemical drugs do not solve the problem because of excessive lead to allergies and side effects in other organs ( liver, kidney, bone marrow, glands Endocrin ). As a result, found many problems; disbacteriosis , hepatitis , nephropathy , immune deficiency conditions , but chronic inflammation problem for a given patient is not resolved . Here is to remember about Hirudotherapy . Containing biologically active substances in leech saliva glands can restore blood circulation in the nidus of inflammation , ischemia remove organs , giving the exchange capillary network and therefore can perform chemical transport of drugs into the nidus of inflammation , improve immune protection and tissue regeneration . In such conditions the use of the same chemical drugs is possible in smaller doses . These factors do not limit the ability to influence the nidus of inflammation Hirudotherapy . The problem is that in the salivary glands of medicinal leeches there are some substances that are able to withstand bacterias.One growth substances studied were the most hirudin . In experiments on animals and bactericidal action of hirudin has been proven bacteriastatic . The main reason of drug action on thrombophlebitis hirudin example is its bactericidal properties . That's why it became clear that the use of leeches in both aseptic inflammation and the inflammation caused by a bacterial agent helps the organism . Owned medicinal leech salivary gland secrets to penetrate the " axis demarcacional " inflammation is deternimed by the action of a factor of-the - enzyme gialuronidaza penetration . This enzyme is able to act unactivate gialuron acid which is a cementing substance for connective tissue .
feaeture sort Hirudotherapy essentially distinquishes of other treatment methods .
In addition to the above mentioned effects Hirudotherapy it is necessary to remember about the biological influences such as irritation of the active points in zones.It reflex has been long known that leeches prefer to sit in certain areas of the skin that correspond to points of ancient Chinese method of treatment - needleacupuncture . In Hirudotherapy results we receive in the treatment effect is not only due to the action of biologically active substances ' secret leeches , but also in a way that affects the reflex zones .
For example, in the treatment of hypertonic disease biologically active points and cervical occipital regions used and the influence of these points give , vasodilation and hipotenzive effects.The other anesthetic action of the leech is a leech exhaust taking.One blood of 5 to 10 ml of blood .. The bleeding lasts for several hours ( approximately 12-24 hours ) and patients lose about 20-30 ml blood.Thus due to the influence of the leech 5 simulteneously patients 100-250 ml of blood loss and blood this way has the advantage of taking no doubt before taking blood from a vein . Taking blood from the organs associated with pain lasted for about an hour . Therefore , creating conditions of many lasts hours and venous drainage and stable fit of certain areas , in certain areas there is usually improved microcirculation , nutrition network , mobile exchange , venous stagnation usually liquidated and organ ischemia usually eliminated.After course of treatment consists of 5-10 procedures using leeches 4-10 good clinical effect is marked.At cardiovascular pathology circulatory decompensation ( ishemic heart disease , defect intimate ) that points to the heart of authentic leech reduce elevated arterial pressure , leading to reduce stagnation in heart , for increased ventilation of the lungs and heart demolition . The effect comes in direct hipotenzive results and anticoagulating action of hirudin and not a smaller degree by reducing peripheral resistance . In the cardiovascular system disease Hirudotherapy play a special role.It easy to find an explanation for the attention to the conditions mentioned above properties.Besides note hirudin ability to affect blood clotting . Fluid and blood clotting conditions provided by the functional interation of two systems of organisms : anticlotting.The anticlotting support system and blood clotting in a liquid state , protecting it from freezing , which both provide protection from bleeding in violation of the integrity of blood vessels . For patients with ischemic heart disease , hypertension , for parents , for patients with diabetes is a major problem as angiopathy and vessel atherosclerosis - results ; atherosclerosis anyone integrety violation of vessels.which blood supply and turn on the system clotting.In terrible results show most of the heart disease and arterial thrombosis in vessels is an important vital organs. The output of thrombosis is heart infarction , brain , lungs brinding sometimes deadly results . Stimulation fibrinolitic activity and anticlotting systems of the blood in disease , the suppression of the formation trombs , and reduce blood viscosity is needed both with medical purpose and for preventive maintenance of ischemic conditions . The mechanism of action of hirudin on thrombin oppressive investigated . hirudin blocks the action of thrombin and the latter loses its properties , does not promote the transition of fibrinogen to fibrin. Besides secret saliva of medicinal leeches block an attachement anitial of platelets and actually press them on the surface collagenus aggregetion . Thus , the secret saliva of leeches and the influence of the drug on blood plasma cellular factor clotting. In much research writer is indicated that after the leech is no normalization parameter assignment separate from coagulogramme - on anitial combination of hyper coagulation system activates and vice versa anticoagulating is becoming more active . Similar effects were not accepted even when we use a known anticoagulant such as heparin and aspirin . We must add the effects lipotropal enzymes from the salivary glands of leeches which consists in the ability of drugs to influence on blood lipids . At the beginning of this century, some scientists expressed the assumption that the development of atherosclerosis can be prevented by applying medicinal leeches . In the 1984-1989 experiment proved that the introduction of long- secret introvenous salivary glands of medicinal leeches to mice that were presented in conditions very last atherosclerosis has been a reduction in lung lipids and abdominal arteries . It is known that lipoproteids low density and low density lipoproteids greatly promoted the development of atherosclerosis , but the high density lipoproteids antisclerous protective factors play a role . On hearing the disease there ishemic redistribution of cholesterol in the different classes of lipoproteids density . Quantity in lipoproteids it raises low-density and very low density lipoproteids reduced resulting in high lipoproteids . In this group had increased levels of lipid authentic general , triglicerids , cholesterol on artery walls . Many writers are engaged in this sign authentically reduction problem triglicerids and cholesterol in the blood after a few sessions Hirudotherapy . This makes it possible to draw the conclusion that the secret lipotropic ensymes leech saliva drug can be used in the atherosclerotic vessel defects regardless of the primary localization of atherosclerosis . Perhaps the effect of " rejuvenation " can look after emergence Hirudotherapy shine in the eyes , skin elasticity improvement , flush appearance , loss of face mask fatigue in patients , strong sort of patient . That's possible because in this case we are dealing with an increase mechanism Vasku.

The nature of Leech Therapy.


The nature of Leech Therapy

leech mouth.

structure leech

Therapeutic properties Hirudotherapy ;

* Common reflexogenic : hypotension
* Bleeds : immunopotentiating
* Internal decongestion : bacteriostatic
* Anticoagulants : anti - inflammatory
* Protective antithrombotic : Local anti - edema
* Thrombolytic : analgesic
* Removal of microcirculation disorders : antiatherosclerotic
* Anti - ischemic : elimination of abnormal interactions between the system.

Doctor Miracle called leech .

Applied drugs have hundreds of years of experience in the fight against human disease . Tens of thousands of different mixtures , tablets , vaccines , drugs , etc. have been created - and they are all human treatment effects . And why professional doctors again and again apply to traditional methods of treatment rather old drug tested by our ancestors ? There is no secret that ... All of these methods are based on natural root . That is why we applied the medical center fashioned method " of treatment for hundreds of diseases ".

Hirudotherapy .

Hirudotherapy ( from Latin leech Hirudo - ) is known since ancient times . Along with general bloodletting , has been regarded as a necessary drug in the treatment of different diseases .
Secrets of the medical leech salivary gland contains more than 100 bioactive substances and has anti -inflammatory action , bacteriostatic , analgesic , completing , it eliminates the microcirculation disorders , vascular permeability restore damaged tissues and organs , eliminating hypoxia ( lack of oxygen ) , reducing blood pressure , improving the activity of the immune system , detoxifies the organism , releases from threatening complications , such as infarction , stroke , improving bioenergy status of the organism .
How confidential leech injection is very simple : placed on the skin to bite the skin , then the leech saliva secret falls into the bloodstream and go to the focus of the disease through the vessel .
In medicine we use hirudoreflexotherapy put leeches on reflexogenic point as " needle Life ".

Indications for treatment with medicinal leeches :

* Cardiovascular diseases , including essential hypertension and ischemic
   diseases , diseases phlebogene of the lower extremities ;
* Chronic bronchitis , pneumonia , bronchial asthma ;
* Digestive tract diseases ( hepatitis , cholecystitis , pancreatitis , gastric ulcer ) ;
* ENT Disease ;
* Paradontosis and other dental diseases ;
* Urological diseases ;
* Male sterility ;
* Skin diseases ( neurodermatitis , psoriasis , eczema , herpes ) ;
* Gynecological disorders ( commissural process in the small pelvis ,
* Female infertility ,
* Adnexitis chronic , parametritis ,
* Endometriosis , fibromastopathy ) ;
* Systemic diseases ( rheumatoid arthritis , systemic lupus erythematosus , scleroderma ) ;
* Osteochondrosis and radiculitis ;
* Eye diseases , including glaucoma ;
* Infantile cerebral paralysis ( ICP ) and other diseases .
* Therapy Hirudotherapy properties :

Blood shortage.

Leech therapy is always associated with a certain degree of blood loss , which is clinically irrelevant in most cases . In clinical trials by Michalsen , losses mean hemoglobin 0.7 mg / dL of blood loss , and clinically relevant not occur in any of the patients studied . However , there is a strong afterbleeding isolated observations with a decrease in hemoglobin value , especially in cases where the leech was accidentally applied directly to the superficial veins . According to the Essen-Mitte Hospital, clinically relevant decrease in hemoglobin (> 3 mg/dL) occurred after leech therapy in two patients , one of whom required blood transfusion ( after being treated with six leeches for osteoarthritis of the knee ) . Asked retrospective , one patient stated that he was , in his opinion , prolonged bleeding injuries in the past . In other cases , afterbleeding from leech bites lasted for 36 hours and must be stopped by skin sutures . extensive coagulation test is then performed but did not reveal any specific coagulation disorders . Prior to the occurrence of abnormal bleeding anamnestically seem important , and patients should be specifically questioned about the incident . Anticoagulants are drugs simultaneously important to see . If low-dose aspirin is prescribed in combination with other platelet aggregation inhibitors ( clopidogrel , Iscover , Plavix ) or high -dose fish oil ( Omacor ) , a small number of leeches ( 3-4 ) should be used initially. blood counts should always be obtained before the start of leech therapy. To reliably prevent the loss of the relevant amount of blood , the leech therapist should never use more than 12 twisters in a single treatment session.

Impaired Wound Healing , superinfection , and Allergies .

Once the leech drops off , the edge of the wound three branches generally swell during 12-48 hours accompanied by feelings of local tension , hot , and flushed . Small blood spots ( ecchymoses ) develop under the skin around the bite of a leech . larger collection of blood rarely develops . Such as superficial bruises , blood spots initially reddish purple , then turn yellowish , and finally disappeared in about two weeks . Localized inflammation , sometimes with papulous height of the bite site , is a relatively common problem that is often accompanied by itching . This inflammation usually subsides quickly when the ice and left . The cause of this disorder is unknown wound - healing . improper handling , especially early termination afterbleeding from wounds , leech head squeezed with pliers , strong deletion of leeches before finished eating , and the failure to keep the animals in freshwater , has frequently been implicated as a potential cause . However , it has also been observed to occur right after leech treatment in isolated cases . Theoretically, Aeromonas hydrophila local infection with a potential cause , but so far there is no evidence of microbiological presence of Aeromonas hydrophila in the wound fluid of affected patients . more severe local inflammation is most often caused by secondary wound contamination or irritation due to mechanical irritation , such as scratching and rubbing . Patients should be informed of the overall importance of protecting the wound from mechanical irritation . According to survey hospitals , more severe local inflammation occurs in three isolated cases : One patient developed erysipelas and two lymphangitis being developed . All cases resolved rapidly in response to treatment with cephalosporin antibiotics and / or gyrase inhibitors . Obedience localization contraindications and recommendations to minimize the risk of local inflammation . In case it is not clear where the progressive and painful skin redness develops , especially if it is associated with increased temperature , the leech therapist should know to administer antibiotics immediately . Pseudolymphomas may occur in rare cases , this is caused by efflorescences papulous reaction to arthropod bites leech . Currently , no data are used to assess the exact frequency of these side effects . To our knowledge , a total of three documented and confirmed cases have been reported .
It is difficult to distinguish the wound - healing secondary disturbance of potential allergic reactions . precise data on the frequency of allergic reactions to the bite of a leech is not available . Local itching , a common side effect of leeching , should not be construed as an allergic reaction . allergic reactions such as urticaria firmly while and locodistant swelling have been reported in a few isolated cases . However , local symptoms , reflex erythema and urticarial dermographism psychovegetatively unstable individuals have been studied more frequently . An older case reports describe the occurrence of short -term anaphylactic shock after six leeches applied to the temple area . Some experts manage systemic antihistamines leech therapy for the treatment of localized allergic reaction to ( empirical ) good success . However , response rates for both antihistamines are not evidence per se of allergens : A certain level of placebo response to antihistamines should also be taken into account . Which may be boosting existing antibiotics allergic to leech therapy is also proposed in case reports .
When interpreting a local reaction that occurs after leech therapy , it is important to remember that the protease in the saliva of leeches release various types of mediators nonimmunological . Furthermore , the reaction may be exacerbated by factors psychovegetative . All in all , there are only a few cases in which a relationship between leech therapy and the occurrence of allergic reactions has been proven with reasonable certainty . However , potential allergic reactions occur after exposure to any foreign protein . Contact dermatitis has also been observed after the use of leeches ointment .
Short-term reactive swelling and / or tenderness of the lymph nodes proximal have occasionally been reported , but most often in patients with delayed wound healing . This phenomenon has most often develops in the groin area after application of leeches for the treatment of knee joint, hip joint, or varicose veins. Quickly and smoothly loss swollen lymph nodes all of which are described in case reports.

Blood poisoning .

Sepsis due to systemic infection with Aeromonas hydrophila has been repeatedly observed after application of leeches in reconstructive surgery indications , but not in any of the other relevant fields used . This supports the conclusion that the risk of Aeromonas hydrophila sepsis increased only in patients with severe underlying disease or immunosuppression , which often occur in surgical candidates for leech therapy . Therefore we recommend concurrent antibiotic treatment for all surgical patients receiving leech therapy . In the rest of the field of use , the primary antibiotic therapy does not seem to be required in accordance with the current state of knowledge , but must be considered relevant contraindications.

Transmission of Infectious Diseases .

At this time , medicinal leeches are generally only used once . Therefore , there is no risk of indirect transfer of infectious diseases from one patient to another . Aeromonas hydrophila primary infection with clinically relevant only if the leech goes for transplant surgery . Concurrent antibiotic treatment therefore recommended for prophylaxis of infection in these cases ( see above ) . Transmission of pathogenic bacteria or other viruses to humans in the context of leech therapy has not been observed so far.

Scars.

If allowed , the former is usually rapid leech shrunk to hardly visible or invisible signs three small branches disappear completely within one to three weeks . However , if the impaired wound healing wounds due to scratching or secondary infections , scars will remain visible for a long time significantly . Papulous skin changes over the last few months have also been reported in isolated cases . In one case , a " reaction to arthropod " permanent also been reported after treatment leeches . Significant scarring may occur especially when leeches are applied to
areas with thin skin and a thin layer of subcutaneous tissue or joint area where the skin is constant movement . Wearing tight clothing after treatment , for example, around the knee , can also result in scar formation .
For aesthetic reasons , the control is recommended when using leeches in the face or in part apparent and other relevant cosmetics from the body . Here , we re- emphasize that it is necessary to thoroughly inform patients about the potential risks of treatment , including scar tissue , and to obtain written informed consent from the patient before going ahead with the treatment .

Safety and Side Effects Leech Therapy .

leech therapy rarely ever lead to serious complications . Local pain medication and short-term side effects itching usual . Prior to treatment , patients should be advised accordingly and asked to sign a consent form that describes the side effects that are relevant ( see Appendix ) . Prevalence data from systematic and prospective studies are only available for a few different side effects of leech therapy . The following analysis is compiled using data from published efficacy studies and case reports , as well as from personal observation . Quality control data on adverse events documented in more than 1000 cases treated at the Hospital Essen-Mitte, especially for the treatment of degenerative joint disease, is also included in the analysis .

Local Pain During Treatment .

Local pain perception varies leeching . Most patients describe the local dragging pain that occurs immediately after leech bites and lasts for about one to five minutes . Such as saliva more and more introduced into the network , the anesthetic effect of leech saliva comes into force . The intensity of the pain from the bite of the leech and the first phase is generally described as a light meal or ignored ( depending on the individual 's pain threshold ) , but some patients find the pain is more intense , similar to a wasp sting . Perceived intensity of leech bites varies from one person to another . subjective pain ratings ranged from " hardly noticeable " to " mild " ( similar to stinging nettle pain ) to " similar to a wasp sting " ( very rare ) . Sensation ( or sometimes a bit strong ) rhythmic normally attract little attention for one to three minutes after the start of feeding .
Does stimulation of the same intensity exactly considered painful or not perceived at all of course depends on the personality of the individual , but also depends on the concentration of the people on the leech or leech therapy attitudes toward . Individual leech jaw size , bite force , the intensity of suction , and the volume and composition of leech saliva also plays a role . Many people never even notice the bites of leeches , for example when they are bitten under the water , while their attention is focused on something else . Often , patients are more anxious that focuses on getting ready for the leech bite , the higher the perception of pain . Leech therapist should keep in mind during the preparation phase and during treatment . A diversion can often help . It is also useful to allow the patient to " get to know " "his" or " her " to convince the leech and leech treatment of patients with a confident manner . If latex gloves must be worn for health reasons , the leech therapist does not have to use forceps on leeches . Many patients lose their aversion to leeches when they show how they swim and elegant beautiful colored patterns on their backs shown . Many people report that the patient's attitude toward the leech changes from negative to positive after a positive treatment experience . Most of the concerns are projected to leech is based on ancient fears rather than on objective facts . We also recommend that kill leeches in front of the patient . If leeches had to be killed after treatment , the animals should be frozen and placed in a solution of 90 % alcohol a few days later .

Itching local .

Transient leech bites itch in place within the first few days after treatment is very common and should not be mistaken for an allergic reaction . In a study of the efficacy of leech therapy in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee , approximately 70 % of patients treated with leeches developed local itching that lasts an average of two days . Transient itching occurs at a frequency that is comparable , but the level of intensity is strong in many cases in which leeches were applied to the more peripheral joints , such as the thumb , but at lower levels after treatment of large joints and vertebrogenic zone , according to empirical assessment . Patients can be advised prior to treatment side effects . Patients should not scratch the bites of leeches , especially after the initial wound closure , because it often delays wound healing . We recommend local cooling solution ( curd wraps, cold moist wrap, wrap vinegar ). For more severe itching, antipruritic commercial products ( eg , ointment Fenistil ) or oral antihistamines may be used . Some experts prescribe oral antihistamines leech therapy to patients in conjunction with a known history of a severe reaction ( itching and redness of the skin ) for leech therapy . Isolated reports describe brief relapse hives are in certain situations ( eg , high temperature ) for several months after an otherwise uneventful course of leech therapy .

Hypotension and Vasovagal attack.

Patients with a history of developing vasovagal attack or syncope ( fainting ) before other invasive treatment methods also can develop a reaction like that at the start of or during leech therapy . One survey showed that vasovagal attack occurs in one of 1000 leech treatment performed in our hospital . Therefore , the leech therapist should always ask about the patient's prior history of vasovagal attack or pass out before procedures such as blood sampling or acupuncture . To guard against vasovagal attack , the patient should drink plenty of fluids before and during treatment , and treatment should always be done in a soothing environment while the patient is lying down . Two cases of hypotension and syncope outpatient Vasodepressor following leech therapy were also observed . Both patients known arterial hypertension and three antihypertensive drugs , which they continue to take as normal . A few hours after leech therapy , two patients developed a brief attack of benign syncope . It is important to remember that leeching has known antihypertensive effects when treating patients on antihypertensive drugs . Patients should drink plenty of fluids . If there is a strong flow of blood from leech bites , the patient's blood pressure should be monitored and antihypertensive medications should be adjusted as needed .
Prior to treatment , patients should be advised accordingly and asked to sign a consent form that describes the side effects that are relevant ( see Appendix ) . Prevalence data from systematic and prospective studies are only available for a few different side effects of leech therapy . The following analysis is compiled using data from published efficacy studies and case reports , as well as from personal observation . Quality control data on adverse events documented in more than 1000 cases treated at the Hospital Essen - Mitte , especially for the treatment of degenerative joint disease , is also included in the analysis .

Local Pain During Treatment .

Local pain perception varies leeching . Most patients describe the local dragging pain that occurs immediately after leech bites and lasts for about one to five minutes . Such as saliva more and more introduced into the network , the anesthetic effect of leech saliva comes into force . The intensity of the pain from the bite of the leech and the first phase is generally described as a light meal or ignored ( depending on the individual 's pain threshold ) , but some patients find the pain is more intense , similar to a wasp sting . Perceived intensity of leech bites varies from one person to another . subjective pain ratings ranged from " hardly noticeable " to " mild " ( similar to stinging nettle pain ) to " similar to a wasp sting " ( very rare ) . Sensation ( or sometimes a bit strong ) rhythmic normally attract little attention for one to three minutes after the start of feeding .
Does stimulation of the same intensity exactly considered painful or not perceived at all of course depends on the personality of the individual , but also depends on the concentration of the people on the leech or leech therapy attitudes toward . Individual leech jaw size , bite force , the intensity of suction , and the volume and composition of leech saliva also plays a role . Many people never even notice the bites of leeches , for example when they are bitten under the water , while their attention is focused on something else . Often , patients are more anxious that focuses on getting ready for the leech bite , the higher the perception of pain . Leech therapist should keep in mind during the preparation phase and during treatment . A diversion can often help . It is also useful to allow the patient to " get to know " "his" or " her " to convince the leech and leech treatment of patients with a confident manner . If latex gloves must be worn for health reasons , the leech therapist does not have to use forceps on leeches . Many patients lose their aversion to leeches when they show how they swim and elegant beautiful colored patterns on their backs shown . Many people report that the patient's attitude toward the leech changes from negative to positive after a positive treatment experience . Most of the concerns are projected to leech is based on ancient fears rather than on objective facts . We also recommend that kill leeches in front of the patient . If leeches had to be killed after treatment , the animals should be frozen and placed in a solution of 90 % alcohol a few days later .

Itching local .

Transient leech bites itch in place within the first few days after treatment is very common and should not be mistaken for an allergic reaction . In a study of the efficacy of leech therapy in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee , approximately 70 % of patients treated with leeches developed local itching that lasts an average of two days . Transient itching occurs at a frequency that is comparable , but the level of intensity is strong in many cases in which leeches were applied to the more peripheral joints , such as the thumb , but at lower levels after treatment of large joints and vertebrogenic zone , according to empirical assessment . Patients can be advised prior to treatment side effects . Patients should not scratch the bites of leeches , especially after the initial wound closure , because it often delays wound healing . We recommend local cooling solution ( curd wraps, cold moist wrap, wrap vinegar ). For more severe itching, antipruritic commercial products ( eg , ointment Fenistil ) or oral antihistamines may be used . Some experts prescribe oral antihistamines leech therapy to patients in conjunction with a known history of a severe reaction ( itching and redness of the skin ) for leech therapy . Isolated reports describe brief relapse hives are in certain situations ( eg , high temperature ) for several months after an otherwise uneventful course of leech therapy .

Hypotension and Vasovagal attack .

Patients with a history of developing vasovagal attack or syncope ( fainting ) before other invasive treatment methods also can develop a reaction like that at the start of or during leech therapy . One survey showed that vasovagal attack occurs in one of 1000 leech treatment performed in our hospital . Therefore , the leech therapist should always ask about the patient's prior history of vasovagal attack or pass out before procedures such as blood sampling or acupuncture . To guard against vasovagal attack , the patient should drink plenty of fluids before and during treatment , and treatment should always be done in a soothing environment while the patient is lying down . Two cases of hypotension and syncope outpatient Vasodepressor following leech therapy were also observed . Both patients known arterial hypertension and three antihypertensive drugs , which they continue to take as normal . A few hours after leech therapy , two patients developed a brief attack of benign syncope . It is important to remember that leeching has known antihypertensive effects when treating patients on antihypertensive drugs . Patients should drink plenty of fluids . If there is a strong flow of blood from leech bites , the patient's blood pressure should be monitored and antihypertensive medications should be adjusted as needed .

Medicinal leeches .

Approximately 600 species of leeches have been identified to date , but only about 15 are used in the treatment . Leeches classified as " medicinal leeches " , Hirudo medicinalis , in the narrow sense has been used to treat patients for centuries .
The first documented account of the use of Hirudo medicinalis for medicinal purposes dates back to the time of Hippocrates . According to Sanskrit writings , Dhavantari , the father of Indian medicine , held nectar in one hand and a leech on the other hand . Leech therapy is also used in traditional Chinese medicine . Paintings of medicinal leeches have been found in the tombs of pharaohs . The Solomon Parables also describe leech treatment use in ancient medicine . Leech therapy in the treatment of Greece can be found in the poem by Nicandros Alexipharmacia . The Roman physician Galen classified leech terapy as a method to achieve a healthy balance . Avicenna also used leeches for healing aids. In the past leeches have proven the most effective treatment in many cases. Leeches were especially useful in the treatment of battle wounds . European countries in the 18th and 19th centuries imported over 100 million leeches every year to meet the high demand .
Currently , doctors use leeches for treating abscesses , painful joints , glaucoma , myasthenia , and to heal venous diseases and thrombosis . Medical leeches are used in plastic surgery , to improve brain circulation and for the treatment of infertility .
Common indications for leech therapy are :
inflammatory reaction
Heart Disease
Rheumatic Diseases
Tendovaginitis and Tendinitis
Venous Disease and Varicose Veins
arthrosis
arthritis
muscle tension
Antidyscratic therapy ( blood purification and regeneration ) of toxicoses and mental illness
Thrombosis and embolism
Passive congestions and spastic conditions
Vertebrogenic Pain Syndromes
Transudates and exudates
A simple principle lies at the heart of all miracles - Hirudo . During feeding, leeches secrete a complex mixture of different biologically and pharmacologically active ingredients into the wound . Hirudin is the best known component of leech saliva . Hirudin is sometimes used to describe all the active substances in leech saliva . In fact , hirudin only refer to a particular active substance in leech salive . Component of leech saliva drug effects in the host's body is :
* Hirudin : Inhibits blood coagulation by binding to thrombin
* Calin : Inhibits blood clots by blocking the binding of von factors
   Willebrand for collagen . Inhibit collagen - mediated platelet aggregation
* Destabilase : Monomerizing activities . Soluble fibrin . effects of thrombolytic
* Hirustasin : Inhibits kallikrein , trypsin , chymotrypsin , cathepsin G neutropholic
* Bdellins : Anti - inflammatory . Inhibit trypsin , plasmin , acrosin
* Hyaluronidase : Increasing the viscosity of the interstitial . antibiotic
* Tryptase inhibitors : Inhibits proteolytic enzymes of host mast cells
* Eglins : Anti - inflammatory. Inhibit the activity of alpha - chymotrypsin, chymase, substilisin, elastase, cathepsin G
Inhibiting Factor Xa inhibitors : coagulation factor xa activity by forming
  equimolar complex
* Inhibitors : Complementary May possibly replace natural complement inhibitors if they lack
* Carboxypeptidase : A inhibitors Increases blood flow at the site of the bite
* Histaminelike : vasodilator substances . Increases blood flow at the site of the bite
* Acetylcholine : vasodilator
* Subsctance anesthesia : anesthesia

Effects leech bites .

Although some types of blood sucking leeches, not all species can bite,
only 90  % of their feed from decomposing bodies and open wounds of amphibians , reptiles, waterfowl, fish, and mammals ( including, but not limited to, humans ). A leech attaches when biting, and will remain attached to having a blood content. Because anticoagulant ( hirudin ) that leeches secrete , bites may bleed more than normal wound after the leech removed. Effect of anticoagulants will disappear a few hours after the leech is removed and the wound cleaned .
Leeches normally carry parasites in their digestive tract that can not survive in humans and do not pose a threat . However , bacteria , viruses , and parasites from previous blood sources can survive within a leech for months , and may be transmitted back to humans . A study found both HIV and hepatitis in African leeches from Cameroon . ( Hirudotherapy ethics therefore is always using leeches that had never been used )
Although some types of blood sucking leeches, not all species can bite, only 90% of their feed from decomposing bodies and open wounds of amphibians, reptiles, waterfowl, fish, and mammals (including, but not limited to, humans). A leech attaches when biting, and will remain attached to having a blood content. Because anticoagulant (hirudin) that leeches secrete, bites may bleed more than normal wound after the leech removed. Effect of anticoagulants will disappear a few hours after the leech is removed and the wound cleaned. Leeches normally carry parasites in their digestive tract that can not survive in humans and do not pose a threat. However, bacteria, viruses, and parasites from previous blood sources can survive within a leech for months, and may be transmitted back to humans.
A study found both HIVdan hepatitis in African leeches from Cameroon. (Hirudotherapy ethics therefore is always using leeches that had never been used).
Thank you for reading this article . Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno.
sunarnobambang86@gmail.com
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http://primadonablog.blogspot.com/2014/01/did-you-know-about-leeches-?.html
DatePublished: January 27, 2014 at 11:30
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Saturday, 13 February 2016

Did You Know The Benefits of Milk Etawa.

Benefits of Milk Milk Etawa Etawa believed to have tremendous benefits for a variety of health. It is based on research that Etawa milk contains nutrients and minerals are fairly complete. Among them, phosphorus, calcium, sodium and fluorine. Therefore, milk Etawa claimed to have benefits that almost equivalent to breastmilk.
Etawa.

By looking at the nutritional content is very diverse and complete, it is not surprising that the benefits of milk Etawa also quite numerous and varied. What are the benefits of milk Etawa? Some of the reviews about the health benefits of milk for Etawa.

Benefits and Uses Milk Etawa are :

It has a natural anti-inflammatory properties.

Milk is naturally homogenized Etawa. Fat globules contained in milk Etawa can solve themselves into smaller parts when compared to cow's milk. It is beneficial to facilitate digestion and absorption of food by the body.

For people who suffer from bowel problems or gastrointestinal disorders caused by inflammation, milk Etawa very good to eat. Probiotic properties found in milk Etawa can encourage the development of the digestive system better.

Contains essential fatty acids.

Etawa milk contains about 35% higher fatty acids when compared to cow's milk only has 17%. In addition, milk Etawa more pronounced efficacy when taken in a raw state. Even for those who are lactose intolerant. Milk Etawa also beneficial for lowering high cholesterol. Antimicrobial fatty acids such as caprylic and capric acid found in milk Etawa also useful for improving the digestive system.

Improve the digestive system.

As mentioned earlier, milk Etawa very good for digestive health. This milk has the ability to soothe your digestive tract and suppress hunger effectively making it very suitable for weight loss. Moreover, the absence of protein complexes in milk Etawa make less milk allergy compared with cow's milk.

Does not cause allergies.

Many people complain that turns cow's milk can make them prone to allergies and respiratory diseases. But you do not worry, milk Etawa is an alternative that is very potent and efficacious to resolve the issue. High fat content in cow's milk is the cause of the accumulation of mucus that trigger allergies. Fat globules contained in milk Etawa only one ninth of the fat present in cow's milk. Therefore, irritation of your intestines due to consumption of milk can be avoided.

Acting as a metabolic agent.

Research and studies conducted on milk Etawa concluded that milk is closely related Etawa increased ability to absorb iron and copper, especially in people who have impaired digestive system.

Rich in calcium.

Although people consume cow's milk to increase calcium intake and prevent osteoporosis, you should also try Etawa milk because milk Etawa very rich in calcium and amino acid tryptophan.

As good nutrition and natural.

Goats are known as bio-organic sodium animals because efficacious to improve morale, flexibility and vitality for those who like to consume goat milk. Sodium bio-organic elements that keep joints supple and healthy. In addition, milk Etawa also widely used as a drug to maintain and regenerate the nervous system.

Can treat tuberculosis and asthma.

Milk Etawa it can be used as a medicine to cure tuberculosis and asthma because it contains Fluorine and Betakasein. In addition, milk Etawa also beneficial for those who have problems with breathing.

Good for pregnant and lactating mothers.

Another benefit of milk Etawa named as additional nutrition for pregnant women. In addition, the impact of milk consumption in pregnant women Etawa will nourish the fetus as well. As for nursing mothers, milk Etawa good to facilitate breastfeeding.

Can nourish the skin.

Did you know that milk Etawa it can be used as face masks and scrubs. This method is useful for smoothing the skin and tightens pores so free from various skin problems such as acne.

Benefits of Milk Etawa For Body And Skin.

Like any other milks, milk Etawa also very well taken by all ages because it is very beneficial for health. Of the value of the nutrients, milk Etawa not inferior to other milks, milk even Etawa has several advantages which are very striking. Milk Etawa also recommended consumed for the growth of the baby, pregnant women, breast-feeding mothers, the elderly, and also for healing various diseases as well as for skin beauty. Etawa milk can also be processed into milk powder, cheese, and other dairy products using.

Regarding Milk Mistaken assumption Etawa.

The myth that assumes that goat's milk should not be consumed by people with hypertension (high blood pressure) is not true. The content of "Potassium (Potassium)" contained in the milk Etawa it serves to control blood pressure and may reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke.

Content of Milk Etawa.

Results of research conducted by the United State Department of Agriculture (USDA) shows dairy nutrition Etawa approaching perfect composition of breast milk. Every 100 grams of goat milk contains 3-4% protein, 4-7% fat, 4.5% carbohydrates, 134 grams of calcium and 111 g of phosphorus. The chemical composition Etawa milk contains proteins, fats, carbohydrates, calories, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, sodium, potassium, vitamin A, B1 (IU), B2 (mg), B6, B12, C, D, E, Niacin , V, Pantotenant Acid, Choline and Inositol. Children who consume goat milk has good bone density, increased hemoglobin levels, as well as the adequacy of vitamin A, B1, B2 and B3 are essential for the growth and development of brain and nerve cells. Amino acids containing sulfur element methionine, cystine and cysteine essential for building healthy brain and nervous system, as well as play a role in the formation of blood cells antidote (detoxification) of hazardous chemicals into the body.

Excess Milk Etawa.

- In terms of nutrition, composition, and the nature, Milk Etawa composition and chemical properties of natural breast milk contains close.
- Have antiseptic properties, natural and can help reduce the breeding of bacteria in the body. This is caused the presence of Fluorine are 10-100 times greater than in cow's milk.
- Is wet (Alkaline Food) that is safe for the body.
- Protein lactase its effect soft and lightweight, so it does not cause diarrhea.
- Protein content contained better than eggs.
- Fat is easily digested because it has a soft and smooth texture is smaller than the grain fat cow's milk or other milk. Homogeneous and also be experienced.
- This makes it easier to digest so that suppress the onset of allergic reactions.
- Milk Etawa can be ingested by humans 20 minutes faster than the other milk.
- Efficacy for the Health of Dairy Ingredients Etawa
- Etawa milk contains sodium (Na), fluorine (F), Calcium (C), and phosphorus (P) as the dominant chemical elements and other nutritional content.

Milk Etawa has a property :

- Helps digestion and neutralize stomach acid.
- As a healing therapy of asthma, tuberculosis and acute lung infection chronic.
- Helps to treat allergic skin and other organs.
- Increase stamina and endurance.
- Addressing the problem of impotence / frigidity and increase the vitality of adult men and women.
- Efficacious for patients with abnormal renal function or in the medical world called neprotic syndrome.
- Efficacious as a healing therapy uric acid.
- Efficacious for bone formation, is highly recommended for those who suffer from rheumatism and prevent bone loss / OSTEOPHOROSIS.
- Helping to provide nutrition and other metabolic disorders.
- Helps smooth the skin because it has no milk Etawa in the form of soap.
Thank you for reading this article. Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno. sunarnobambang86@gmail.com
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http://primadonablog.blogspot.com/2015/02/did-you-know-the-benefits-of-milk-etawa.html
DatePublished: 13 February 2015 at 18:58
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Thursday, 28 May 2015

Did you know Spiders.

Spider, also called spiders, is a kind of jointed animals (arthropods) with two body segments, four pairs of legs, wingless and do not have a mouth cud. All kinds of spiders in the order Araneae classified; and together with scorpions, scorpion, eight-legged mite-all incorporated into the class Arachnida. Field of study of spiders called arachnologi.
Spiders are predators (carnivores), sometimes cannibals. Its main prey are insects. Almost all kinds of spiders, with the exception of about 150 species of tribe Uloboridae and Holarchaeidae, and suborder Mesothelae, able to inject either through a pair of fangs to the enemy or prey. Nevertheless, tens of thousands of species, only about 200 species whose bite can be dangerous to humans.
Not all spiders make webs to catch prey, but all of them able to produce the silk thread-thin strands of protein fibers but strong-of glands (called spinnerets) which is located at the back of his body. The silk fiber is very useful to help the movement of the spider, swinging from one place to another, trapping prey, making egg sacs, protecting the nest holes, and others.

Spider.

Spider anatomy.


Morphology.

Spider anatomy :

(1) four pairs of legs
(2) cephalothorax
(3) opisthosoma
Unlike insects have three body parts, spider only has two. Segment front called cephalothorax or prosoma, which actually is a combination of head and chest (thorax). While the rear segment called abdominal (stomach) or opisthosoma. Between cephalothorax and abdomen are thin connective called pedicle or pedicellus.
At cephalothorax attached four pairs of legs, and one to four pairs of eyes. In addition to a pair of large fanged jaws (called chelicera), there are also a pair of mouth or some similar hand tools called pedipalps. In some types of spiders, adult males pedipalps on enlarging and changing the function as a tool in marriage.
Spiders do not have mouths or teeth for chewing. Instead, the mouth of the spider in the form of a vacuum to suck the prey's body fluids.

Senses.

Eyes on spiders generally a single eye (single-lens eyes), and not like the compound eyes of insects. Most spiders have a vision that is not so good, can not distinguish color, or simply sensitive to dark and light. Spider cave dwellers there are even blind. There are exceptions in some types of spider hunters who have sharp eyesight and good, including in recognizing colors.
To mark the presence of prey on spiders generally rely on vibration, either in nets silk or on land, water, or place its host. There is also capable of spider tasted the difference in air pressure. The sense of touch spiders located on the hairs on his legs.

Predation.

Most spiders indeed a predator (prey) ambush, waiting for prey passing nearby while hiding behind the leaves, layer of petals, crack rocks, or holes in the ground covered with camouflage. Some types have color patterns disguise herself on the ground, rocks or tree bark, so no need to hide.
Weaver spiders (eg tribal members Araneidae) make silk webs approximately spherical shape in the air, between the leaves and branches, in the face of the rock fissures, in the corners of the building, between the telephone wire, and others , These nets are attached, to catch flying insects that become prey. Once the insect is trapped webs, spiders immediately approached and thrust its fangs to immobilize the prey and simultaneously sends digestive enzymes into its prey's body.
Slightly different, spider hunters (such as tribal members Lycosidae) are usually more active. These types of spiders usual exploring the trees, the sidelines of the grass, or the surface of the rocky wall to find prey. This spider can catch up and jump for prey.
Can be injected through a spider's fangs are usually well as ingest and destroy parts of the body of the prey. Then slowly along the broken body fluid in the organ that is inhaled by the predator. Hours spiders suck the liquid dries up the carcass of their prey. Spiders have jaws (chelicera) strong, can more quickly spend their food by disrupting the body and crushing jaws and prey with its fangs it.  Live the rest of small balls that are crushed prey body had shrunk / shrivel.
Some spiders weaver has the ability to wrap the body of its prey with winding threads of silk. This capability is very useful especially if the prey has a self-defense tool that is dangerous, like a bee that has stung; or if the spider wants to save some time while waiting for their prey when preferred to enjoy it later.

Diversity Type.

Until now, about 40,000 species of spiders have been described, and sub-divided into 111 parts. However, given that this animal is so diverse, many of which are very small stature, often hidden in nature, and even many specimens in the museum that are not well understood, it is believed that the possibility of different types of spiders can reach 200,000 species entirely.
Order of the spider is further divided into three major categories at the level of the suborder, namely:

Mesothelae.

Is a primitive spider is not poisonous, the body segments are apparent; shows a closer kinship with the ancestor of arthropods jointed.

Mygalomorphae or Orthognatha.

Is a group of spiders that make hiding hole, and also makes a hole in the ground trap. Many large-bodied species, such as the tarantula.

Araneomorphae.

Is a group of spiders 'modern'. Most spiders we encountered belong to the suborder of this, given that membership consists of 95 parts and covers approximately 94% of the number of species of spider. Fangs of this group leads slightly tilted forward (and not straight as the tarantula group) and driven in the opposite direction as pincers biting prey.

Special Feature Spider.

Spiders are invertebrate animals that berbuku-book (arthropods). Characteristic of spiders the best known is that of eight feet and has the ability to make webs. Spiders are carnivores (meat eaters), but he can not jump or fly. So he must have a special ability to capture prey.

Some special features of spiders.

1. Make Nets

Spiders can make a web that comes from a very sticky saliva. So as to trap prey in the form of small insects that walk through the net. Thus, the spider can easily capture their prey.

2. "The Mouth" Shaped Like Vacuum Equipment

Spiders do not have a mouth or teeth. He preys on its prey by sucking body fluids prey. Spiders have a "mouth" that functions like a vacuum.

3. Sense of Touch at His feet Sensitive

Most spiders have poor eyesight. So as to determine whether there is a prey that has been trapped in his net, he uses the sense of touch in his legs to detect vibrations on their webs.

4. Have Could

Of the tens of thousands of species, only 150 species of spiders that do not have to. Can be used to kill its prey. Can be found in the fangs of spiders. However, only 200 species of spiders that could have harmful to humans.

5. Only Have Two Segments Body

Spiders have only two body segments unlike other insects have three body segments. Two segments that are prosoma (head and chest) and abdomen (stomach). Legs are in prosoma.
Thank you for reading this article. Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno. sunarnobambang86@gmail.com
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DatePublished: May 28, 2015 at 18:16
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You Know Walang Sangit.


Walang sangit (Leptocorisa oratorius Fabricius, (Hemiptera: Alydidae); syn. Leptocorisa acuta) is an insect pest that became important in the cultivation of crops, especially rice. In Indonesia, this insect is called: sloth (West Java), pianggang (Sumatra), and quiet (Madura). These animals are easily recognizable from its elongated shape, measuring about 2 cm, gray brown, and has a "trunk" (proboscis) for sucking plant fluids. Walang sangit is of the order Hemiptera (true Ladybugs nation).
Walang sangit suck sap from the flower stalk (paniculae) and also liquid rice fruits that are still at the stage of cooking the milk, causing crop nutrient deficiencies and yellowing (chlorosis), and slowly weakened.
The name of these animals show a form of defense himself, which issued a stinging scent nose (so-called "sangit"). Actually, not only walang sangit that issued this aroma, but also many other Alydidae members.

Leptocorisa oratorius Fabricius.

Behavior and control interference.

Female insects produce 100-200 eggs, which are laid on the flag leaf of rice. His nymph green, which gradually becomes brown, and experiencing molting five times. Stadia nymphs occurred during 17-27 days. At suitable conditions, imago can live up to 115 days. Nymph and imago attack rice ripe fruit milk by sucking liquid fruit, so the fruit becomes empty. In the former stitches, raised a white patches caused by the fungus Helminthosporium. How to control it is by planting simultaneously, sanitation plants are attacked, or by spraying insecticide according to the recommended dosage.

Description Morphology and BioEkologi Walang Sangit (Leptocorisa oratorius) on Rice.

Walang sangit (Leptocorisa oratorius L) is one of the pests that attack rice plants. Symptoms of attack in the form of rice grains were empty because it was eaten away. This pest is now a common pest of rice crops and spread rapidly in all regions of the world.
In Indonesia walang rice pest is a pest potential at certain times become an important pest and can cause yield losses reach 50%. Alleged that the population of 100,000 birds per hectare can reduce up to 25% results. The results showed a population walang sangit 5 ​​mice per 9 clumps of rice will decrease 15% results. The relationship between population density walang sangit with decreased results indicate that the attack of the tail walang per panicle rice pest in one week can reduce the results of 27%.

Morphological characters Walang Sangit (Leptocorisa oratorius).

Kingdom: Animalia, Phylum: Arthropoda, Class: Insecta Order: Hemiptera, Family: Alydidae, Genus: Leptocorisa, Species: oratorius
Walang sangit (Leptocorisa oratorius) general morphology composed of antenna, caput, thorax, abdomen, front legs, back legs, front wing and rear wing. These insects have a hard front wings, thick and without veins. Membranus-type rear wing and folded under the wings of the insect while resting. The type of tool that is biting-chewing mouth with well developed mandibular capabilities. In some species, especially from the tribe formed Curculionadae tool muzzle his mouth formed at the front of the head.
Walang sangit young green leaves that resemble the colors to deceive the enemy and do not have the ability to fly. While the adult sangit Walang brown and have a good ability to fly. In general, walang sangit slim body shape, long legs and antennas. Walang rice pest eggs are round and flat, blackish brown. Laid eggs lined up, in one or two rows of eggs amounted to 12-16 grains.

BioEkologi.

Besides rice, walang sangit also have alternative host plants in the form of grasses, among others: Panicum spp; Andropogon sorghum; Digitaria consanguinaria; Eleusine coracoma; Setaria Italica; Cyperus polystachys, Paspalum spp; and Pennisetum typhoideum.
Walang sangit (Leptocorisa oratorius) undergo simple metamorphosis begins development of stadia egg, nymph and imago. Walang sangit adults lay eggs on the upper leaves of the plant, especially in the area of ​​the flag leaf of rice plants. 57-day old egg-laying period with a total production of eggs per stem + 200 grains. 7 days old egg stadia, there are five instar growth befallen the total length + 19 days. Preoviposition + 21 days long, so long the life cycle of the pest walang sangit + 46 days.
The eggs hatch into nymphs active after moving into the panicle rice grains are still looking stadia as eat, cook milk. And adult-befallen befallen on a hot day hiding under the canopy of the plants. Adult insects active in the morning to fly from clump to clump while the cost is relatively much happened in the afternoon or evening.
Walang mature rice plants flowering sangit moved to rice crops and breed a generation before the rice crop is harvested. The number of generations in a single stretch of paddy crop depends on the length and number of intervals of rice planting in the overlay. The more simultaneous planting the fewer the number of generations of pests walang sangit development.

The natural pest known walang sangit attacked by two types namely egg parasitoid Gryon nixoni Mesner and O. malayensis Ferr. The second parasitism parasitoids in the field below 50%. Observations were conducted in 1997 and 2000 in several areas in West Java showed parasitoid G. nixoni more dominant than the parasitoid O. malayensis. Parasitoid O. malayensis only found in rice planting areas in a rather mountainous area where many ditanaman besides rice planting crops such as soy beans or O. malayensis besides attacking eggs walang rice pest also attacks the eggs of pests and Nezara viridula Riptortus linearis which is a major pest of soybean plants. Various types of spiders and grasshoppers family Gryllidae and Tettigonidae be walang sangit pest predators. Fungus Beauveria sp is also a natural enemy walang sangit. This fungus attacks befall stadia and adults.

Environmental Factors.

Optimal temperature:

The optimal temperature for the proliferation walang Area sangit ie 27-30 degrees Celsius.

Time:

This relates to the time of day, afternoon and evening. Sangit walang afternoon time used to spawn. Besides the comparison phase of growth and development of plants also affects when walang rice pest will attack that primarily affects the young phase, whereas in the old phase (generative old age) walang rice pest attack and chose not to move to another host.

Habitat:

Habitats where land affects the growth and development of highly among others layout walang rice fields close to Perhutani, high sugar population and agricultural cultivation systems (planting synchronously).
Thank you for reading this article. Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno. sunarnobambang86@gmail.com
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DatePublished: May 28, 2015 at 10:47
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You Know dragonflies.


Dragonflies or damselflies and dragonflies Needles are a group of insects that belong to the nation Odonata. Both kinds of insects are rarely located far away from the water, where they spawn and spend pre-adult children. His name in the local language is papatong (Sunda), dragonfly (Java), coblang (Java), kasasiur (Kalimantan), tjapung
Dragonflies (suborder Anisoptera) relatively easily distinguished from damselfly (suborder Zygoptera). Dragonflies are generally relatively large stature and perch with wings open or stretched sideways. While damselfly generally smallish (though there is some kind of rather large), has a similar slim abdomen thin needle, and perch with wings closed, upright fused onto his back.

Habitat and habits.

Dragonfly and damselfly spread widely, in forests, gardens, fields, rivers and lakes, to the yard and the urban environment. Found starting from the shore to a height of more than 3,000m above sea level. Some species, generally the type of dragonfly, is a strong and broad aviator travel area. Several other species have specific habitat and the living area is narrow. Damselfly usually fly weakly, and rarely venturing far.
Dragonfly life cycle, from egg to death as an adult, varies between six months and a maximum of six or seven years. Dragonflies lay their eggs on plants that are in the water. There is a kind of pleased with stagnant water, but some types are happy to put their eggs in water that is rather heavy. After hatching, larvae (larvae) dragonflies live and thrive in the bottom waters, metamorphosed into nymphs, and finally out of the water as an adult dragonfly.
Most of the life cycle is spent in the form of a dragonfly nymph, below the water surface, using internal gills to breathe. Dragonfly larvae and nymphs live as ferocious carnivores. Large dragonfly nymphs can even hunt and prey on tadpoles and fish children. As adults, the dragonfly is only able to live for a maximum of four months.

Red dragonfly.

Black dragonfly.

Black damselfly.

Amazing Facts About Dragonflies.

Dragonflies are flying insects that can hover in the air. Dragonflies are thought to have existed 300 million years ago. To obtain food, dragonfly get them from other insects that prey on the weaker from it. There are so many species to dragonflies, and most of them are found near water.

According to the researchers, the dragonfly has many advantages compared to other insects. Based on the results of the latest research experts found a very surprising fact that modern technology helicopter flight was very far behind compared with a dragonfly. Dragonfly flight systems beat all man-made machine. For this reason, the design of the last model of the famous Sikorsky helicopters in the world, created using designs dragonfly as a model framework. In this project, IBM helps companies design Sikorsky to carry pictures of dragonflies in particular computer. After that, by taking the example of dragonflies, thousands of illustrations created in the computer. Then, with the example of dragonflies flying technology, they invented a Sikorsky helicopter models.

Dragonflies have a very sharp vision with the total number of micro eyes thirty thousand pieces and each eye leads to different points so that when flying, he can maneuver very quickly even though at the last minute to avoid the pursuit of prey or save himself from a truck coming the opposite direction. Unlike the case with the pilot after the maneuver, he will have difficulty determining the aircraft's position relative to the earth's surface and can lead to the risk of accidents. Therefore, the aircraft is equipped pilot gyroscopes used to compare with the actual horizon horizontal line so that it can quickly determine aircraft position and avoid the risk of accidents.

Dragonflies maneuver performed while flying not only because of his eyesight sharp, but is influenced also by the hair - the hair on his body. When the dragonfly's body position changed during the flight, the hairs on the body and the head becomes aroused. Nerve cells in hair follicles was sending information to the muscles of dragonflies flying about his position in the air. This allows the muscles will automatically regulate the amount and velocity of the wing. Thus, in the most difficult maneuvers, dragonflies never lose direction or control. This system really is a miracle of engineering.

Excess on small insects are not only that, dragonflies can also fly at high speed. Dragonflies are the fastest insects in the world, he is able to fly at speeds of 97 km / h and can travel as far as 137 km in one day.

At high speeds, the dragonfly collides with its prey. The shock of the collision is very strong, but the shape of the bending of the body can absorb shocks in a collision, unlike the case with prey. Dragonfly prey would lose consciousness or even die as a result of the collision. After the collision, the rear legs stretched forward and catch dragonflies prey startled, then torn - shreds and eaten with powerful jaws.

Given the structure of the dragonfly's body so perfect and advanced to the size of an insect smaller than the other insects are very unreasonable. How could a dragonfly can be more advanced than the current cutting-edge technology such as Sikorsky helicopters. According to the core of Darwin's theory of evolution which says that "Evolution occurs because the process of natural selection (natural selections). Species that live in the present comes from living things that come from the past ". Dragonfly may not evolve with the oldest fossilized dragonfly dragonflies living today do not have a difference at all. Impossible if the system is in the body of the dragonfly is formed stage by stage by chance as the content of Darwin's theory of evolution. This is because that for a living creature can live, all these systems must exist at the same time and complete.

Dragonflies are widespread in forests, gardens, fields, rivers and lakes, to the yard and the urban environment. In general, these insects are rarely far from the water, where they spawn and spend pre-adult children. One of the benefits to human dragonfly can be demonstrated with dragonfly habitat. Dragonfly habitats can be showed the water quality in the environment around us. If they can meet a lot of dragonflies means mark our waters are relatively clean of pollution, because the eggs and nymphs can only multiply and survive in waters that are not polluted.

Advantages of these small insects can inspire researchers create increasingly sophisticated means of transportation for human need today. Given the benefits are so great dragonfly for human life shows us how great the power of God created creatures with their respective strengths so that we should be grateful to all of this. Nature has provided God to man and it should we preserve and conserve nature and contents for the ongoing stability of the ecosystem on earth.Thank you for reading this article. Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno. sunarnobambang86@gmail.com
author:
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name: Bambang Sunarno.
http://primadonablog.blogspot.com/2015/05/you-know-dragonflies.html
DatePublished: May 28, 2015 at 10:08
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Code : 7MHPNPADAEFW

Wednesday, 27 May 2015

Did You Know About Fireflies.


Firefly is an insect that can emit light that is clearly visible at night. The light generated by "cold light" that contains no ultraviolet or infrared rays and has a wavelength of 510 to 670 nanometers, with a pale red color, yellow, or green, with a light efficiency of up to 96%.
Fireflies included in the class Lampyridae which is familia in the beetle order Coleoptera. There are more than 2000 species of fireflies, which can be found in the four seasons and tropical regions throughout the world. Many of this species is found in swamps or wet forests which provided plenty of food for its larvae.
Firefly, which emits a beam to recognize each other or to mark mating, using different wavelengths of light, depending on the species. Moreover, in some species, male fireflies are initially shining to attract the females, while in other species, the females were "calling." Some fireflies use their light to defend itself. They emit light as a sign of the enemy that they are not the food was delicious.
For groups Photuris fireflies, their light also plays a role in the hunt. Females of this type can mimic the flickering light signals emitted by females of other types, such as Photuris. With this false light signals, male fireflies kind Photuris was caught and eaten by the female Photuris.
Firefly light also acts as a warning sign, to warn inter-fellow kind of danger, as well as a warning to insects and birds of prey so as not to eat it. Therefore, substances trigger the formation of fireflies light bitter taste. Even if there are insect predators desperate, they usually eat fireflies body of the head, continue to the rear, except the abdomen that is not eaten.

Type of food.

Food fireflies are liquids plants, snails small siputan, worms, and other insects.

Maintenance ways.

If you want to maintain a firefly, should prepare a design almost identical to their natural habitat. Not to be an area with the original. The important thing fireflies comfortable and feel at home there. Because if fireflies are not at home, they do not want to live there. Food can be taken from the natural world around us.

Reproduction fireflies.

Note there are two types of mating ritual of fireflies. The first type, firefly females will release the light that attracted the attention of male fireflies. In this type, the female firefly parties actively looking for a partner, while the passive male.
In the second type, mating ritual begins with a wink-wink of light firefly males who reported that she is a virgin or a lonely widower who is looking for a lover who is now somewhere. Flying to and fro, hoping there fireflies mejeng females who are looking for a mate.
Light blink a kind of firefly has a color, intensity and power of a typical so only fireflies same type able to articulate the meaning of the blinking light. The specificity of light at the time of looking for a partner is precisely that used by experts to distinguish different types of fireflies.
Firefly females rarely fly looking for a life partner, he is just waiting on the ground or the grass, waiting for cues from male fireflies who would become her moorings. When it saw the light of a firefly males, the females will respond with a beam of light that indicated he had recognized the male signal.
Furthermore, males fly toward the female desire of his life. After the close, male fireflies emit light many times, perhaps to ensure that his love is not unrequited. Likewise, the female will emit bright light indicating ready courtship, males will approach the female and then they mate.
Mating process occurs with both genitals touching each other at the end of the stomach and continued with the transfer of packets of sperm from the male to the female body. Sperm packets will be stored in the female abdomen until he is ready to lay eggs. The mating process can be continued throughout the night, and at that fireflies do not emit light.
After the mating, the female directly takes the lover who has to fertilize her eggs. There are also certain types of insects that have a habit such as Black Widow, etc. By consuming the opposite sex, then the females get extra protein to raise the existing egg cells in the body.
Fireflies lay on when it gets dark, eggs, amounting to between 100 and 500 items are put on the ground, twigs, grass, moss in place or under foliage. Cemetery land is relatively loose and not much disturbed an ideal nesting locations fireflies.
After about 30 days, emerged larvae resemble worms fireflies emit light, flat shape with a small head and powerful jaws. Light function on larvae only to warn predators that do not try to bother him. The main activity of the larvae are eating foods such as earthworms, small snails or small insect larvae lain.Masa is the longest period that sekitar1-2 years before becoming kepom-pong. Only a small portion of the firefly eggs hatch into larvae and a few larvae pupate successful. Some predators prey on eggs and fireflies juniors.
Before the larvae pupate will make burrows in the ground. Furthermore, he will go and put his body in the canal. His mouth will remove mucus sticky taped to the wall of the hole. After a month larva resting in the room, he stripped off the skin for the last time and enters the pupal period. Cocoon at first pale yellow and slowly becomes dark, cocoon period lasts about 10 days.
Adult fireflies come out of the cocoon with a pale body that eventually evolved into darker. Both pairs of wings outstretched in order to inflate and dry. Adult fireflies live in booths for a few days until the second front wing really hard and shaping elitera, shield which protects both the soft rear wing.
Adult fireflies live for 2-3 weeks, to perform a marriage. During the feeding activity fireflies are very diverse, some kind of just sucking plant fluids while other types continue eating habits such as still larvae, as other insect or small snails.

Fireflies.

Firefly light Being Natural Mystery.

Firefly is an insect that can emit light that is clearly visible at night. The light generated by "cold light" that contains no ultraviolet or infrared rays and has a wavelength of 510 to 670 nanometers, with a pale red color, yellow, or green, with a light efficiency of up to 96%.

Fireflies included in the class Lampyridae which is familia in the beetle order Coleoptera. There are more than 2000 species of fireflies, which can be found in the four seasons and tropical regions throughout the world. Many of this species is found in swamps or wet forests which provided plenty of food for its larvae.

Firefly, which emits a beam to recognize each other or to mark mating, using different wavelengths of light, depending on the species. Moreover, in some species, male fireflies are initially shining to attract the females, while in other species, the females were "calling." Some fireflies use their light to defend itself. They emit light as a sign of the enemy that they are not the food was delicious.

For groups Photuris fireflies, their light also plays a role in the hunt. Females of this type can mimic the flickering light signals emitted by females of other types, such as Photuris. With this false light signals, male fireflies kind Photuris was caught and eaten by the female Photuris.

Firefly light also acts as a warning sign, to warn inter-fellow kind of danger, as well as a warning to insects and birds of prey so as not to eat it. Therefore, substances trigger the formation of fireflies light bitter taste. Even if there are insect predators desperate, they usually eat fireflies body of the head, continue to the rear, except the abdomen that is not eaten.

1. Natural Mystery

We know that the fireflies come out at night, but there was also fireflies are active in the daytime. They were out during the day is generally not give off light. Only a few fireflies are able to emit light when it is in a dark place.

But why, fireflies emit light? How do they put up with the heat generated by the light? That unique firefly! The light they produce light without heat is called Luminescence. Luminescence in the body of fireflies produced by a substance called Luciferin. This Luciferin substances combine with oxygen to give off light.

Although scientists have been able to create the same type of light produced by fireflies, scientists still have to take some elements from the body of fireflies, because the chemists have not been able to make such substances. It is still a mystery of nature until now.

2. Babies Fireflies

In the adult fireflies, in addition to giving the warning, the light on his serve to attract a mate. Not only adult fireflies, firefly baby is still in the form of larvae also emit light. Light on the larvae useful to warn other animals that prey on them not to close.

After the marriage, firefly females will lay their eggs below the soil surface. The eggs will hatch into larvae after 3-4 weeks and will continue to be fed until the summer ends. After approximately 1-2 weeks from the end of the summer, the larvae will turn into pupae, then turn into adult fireflies.

3. Being Lantern

As in some other animals, fireflies also has significance in several legends and culture. In Mayan mythology, fireflies are often associated with the star. Firefly is also considered to represent the messengers in the temples of the Maya god.

Ancient Chinese people often enter the fireflies in a transparent box for later use as a lantern. While the culture and folklore of Japan, fireflies have the same meaning with the magnitude of the famous Sakura flower.

If you see fireflies in flight, the fireflies male sex. Why so? Because only male fireflies have wings, while the females inherent in the foliage and soil.
Thank you for reading this article.  Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno. sunarnobambang86@gmail.com
author:
http://schema.org/Personal.
https://plus.google.com/105319704331231770941.
name: Bambang Sunarno.
http://primadonablog.blogspot.com/2015/05/did-you-know-about-fireflies.html
DatePublished: May 27, 2015 at 18:13
Tags : Did You Know About Fireflies.
Code : 7MHPNPADAEFW