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Wednesday, 16 January 2019

Welcome.

Welcome to Kediri.

By introducing the name Bambang Sunarno authors also introduce Kediri city as well as the historic birthplace and original culinary style Kediri, East Java, Indonesia.
This blog was established by Bambang Sunarno with the purpose of information, communication and knowledge.
In the town of Kediri, there are several historic sites and some of the history of Kediri.

Attractions including  :

Selomangleng cave.

Selomangleng cave.

Maskumambang lake.

Maskumambang lake.

Maria Lourdes grotto Kediri.

Maria Lourdes grotto Kediri.

Maria Lourdes cave has been known to tourists, and is known by the name Puh Sarang Church Kediri. The tourists always visit every holiday or there is an opportunity to visit with family Kediri, while Maria Lourdes grotto is a site that explains in detail the crucifixion of Jesus and also used for the followers of the Christian ritual.

Dolo Waterfall Kediri.

Dolo Waterfall Kediri.

Waterfall Dolo very attractive to newcomers from abroad or locally to enjoy the beauty of the high fountain and splashing in the gentle breeze and feel fresh.

If you want to Kelud. 

the road to the mountain kelud hot water.

Please contact the Travel Agents are available in the town of Kediri and you will get a place to take you.

culinary seller on the street Dhoho kediri.

When you visit in the evening there is a culinary providers Doho line the streets until the evening at 24.00, and for the guests do not have to worry, because every time you come there is always the hotels were good and satisfying.
Thank you for reading this article. Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno. sunarnobambang86@gmail.com
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DatePublished: 27 September 2019 at 23:16
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Friday, 27 January 2017

Did You Know About Leeches ?

 Leeches

Leeches are ' worms ' with suckers on each end. Leeches can be divided in a variety of sizes, from the size of half an inch to ten inches in length, there are leeches color brown or black color. There are some that eat decaying plants. Others are parasites, sucking the blood and other animal tissues.
blood sucking leeches in two ways : using a leech proboscis to puncture the skin or using three jaws and millions of tiny teeth. Leeches live almost anywhere there is water origin. Leeches find their prey by detecting skin oils, blood, heat or carbon dioxide even when the prey breathes.
Leeches do not often eat , this is because the leeches suck in large amounts of blood when eating.
Doctors often use leeches in the past to draw blood. Leeches are also used to perform operations and cutting hair. When the barber finished the operation,
she would take a bloody bandage and wrap around the pole to show that he was doing surgery. That's how the origin of the red and white pole circling the barber.
Now maggots and leeches are used for different reasons . Scientists are studying the saliva of leeches. They believe the substances that stop or prevent blood clots that someday could be used in humans. The researchers also identified several medical compounds that can be developed from the saliva of leeches.
The properties of anticoagulant and clot - digesting these substances makes them potentially useful as a drug for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as heart attack and stroke . Leeches can be " milked " for their secretions without being harmed, and continues to do research the possibility of engineering synthetic leech saliva. But it still used leeches to suck blood.
Doctors now turn to leeches to help restore blood circulation to grafted tissue and reattached and toes.
For example : microsurgeons at a Boston hospital used leeches to save the ears of a 5 year old boy who had been bitten by a dog died . The leech can remove all solid blood to allow normal circulation to return to the network , thus preventing gangrene from scratch .
At this time , hundreds of thousands of leeches are sold in the U.S. to hospitals , clinics and individuals the European market , much bigger and millions of leeches are sold every year .

Hirudotherapy.

Hirudotherapy is treatment using medical leeches . This type of therapy is known from extreme antiquity and is still alive today . This fact shows effectiveness in healing various diseases . Currently Hirudotherapy method approved by many countries .

Hirudotherapy is treatment using medical leeches

Great experience using medicinal leeches in medical purpose kept up for centuries With the development of science covert action mechanism described leech salivary glands , are biologically active substances included in it was introduced to the public , the influence of leeches on the particular structure of a living organism has been investigated . Some medical forms are made on the basis of biologically active substances from the salivary glands of leeches and work on the creation of a new substance that is by doing a modern Hirudotherapy different from the old-fashioned because now we do not use the wild leeches , instead we use leeches that live in the wild , especially where they are in a natural condition that dirty , we currently use a leech only once .
The advantages are obvious and absolute safety Hirudotherapy checked on thousands of years of human experience and not cause doubts . One of the first substance that is found in the salivary glands of medicinal leeches is hirudin , a substance that thins the blood clotting process , anticoagulating as destabilaza fermentation , ingibitors of plazmine , callecrein of plasmine and others .
Factors diffusion - ferments of gialuronidaza , collagenaza , appressing factors mediators of pain - cininaza , antisclerous factors are also investigated . Thus , medicinal leeches are manufacturing biologically active substances . The result of the action of biologically active substances on living organisms are ;
- Normalization and improvement of capillary circulation ;
- Declare antiinflammatory effects ;
- Antistressful and adaptogene effect ;
- Immunostimulants and immunomodulating effects ;
- Anesthesia ;
- Anticoagulation ;
- Antibacterial Effect ;
- Improvement of the endocellular exhange and realization of this mechanism has both local and general character .
The existence of skin-visceral connection with the organs are definitely famous. biologically active substances act to organ for blood -sucking leeches drug action through Viens. This prompted an increase in blood circulation in specific organs, making trombolitic , anti-inflammatory , immunostimulant action , improve nutrition of tissues , strengthen the immune network . It is impossible for all the diseases that can be treated by using Hirudotherapy , contra - indications with Hirudotherphy is hemophilia , pregnancy , anemia , hypotonia .
Hirudotherapy can be applied to any disease known at this time . It can be used as an independent method of treatment and in a complex with other people to know . Doctors know exactly how difficult it is to struggle with chronic inflammatory diseases. The problem is in all types of clinical presentation of the disease organism protection mechanisms are universal-emission inflammatory mediators, vazoconstrictors , apireties and some other biologically active substances into the blood . Everything comes to the aspirations of living organisms to limit the nidus of inflammation by a decrease in blood circulation and capillary permeability - network , the creation of a shaft with conjunctive tissue inflammation and cellular structure and mode of temperature in the area . Given as a result of the concentration of the drug for instance an antibiotic in the nidus of inflammation is much lower than in the blood . Increasing doses of chemical drugs do not solve the problem because of excessive lead to allergies and side effects in other organs ( liver, kidney, bone marrow, glands Endocrin ). As a result, found many problems; disbacteriosis , hepatitis , nephropathy , immune deficiency conditions , but chronic inflammation problem for a given patient is not resolved . Here is to remember about Hirudotherapy . Containing biologically active substances in leech saliva glands can restore blood circulation in the nidus of inflammation , ischemia remove organs , giving the exchange capillary network and therefore can perform chemical transport of drugs into the nidus of inflammation , improve immune protection and tissue regeneration . In such conditions the use of the same chemical drugs is possible in smaller doses . These factors do not limit the ability to influence the nidus of inflammation Hirudotherapy . The problem is that in the salivary glands of medicinal leeches there are some substances that are able to withstand bacterias.One growth substances studied were the most hirudin . In experiments on animals and bactericidal action of hirudin has been proven bacteriastatic . The main reason of drug action on thrombophlebitis hirudin example is its bactericidal properties . That's why it became clear that the use of leeches in both aseptic inflammation and the inflammation caused by a bacterial agent helps the organism . Owned medicinal leech salivary gland secrets to penetrate the " axis demarcacional " inflammation is deternimed by the action of a factor of-the - enzyme gialuronidaza penetration . This enzyme is able to act unactivate gialuron acid which is a cementing substance for connective tissue .
feaeture sort Hirudotherapy essentially distinquishes of other treatment methods .
In addition to the above mentioned effects Hirudotherapy it is necessary to remember about the biological influences such as irritation of the active points in zones.It reflex has been long known that leeches prefer to sit in certain areas of the skin that correspond to points of ancient Chinese method of treatment - needleacupuncture . In Hirudotherapy results we receive in the treatment effect is not only due to the action of biologically active substances ' secret leeches , but also in a way that affects the reflex zones .
For example, in the treatment of hypertonic disease biologically active points and cervical occipital regions used and the influence of these points give , vasodilation and hipotenzive effects.The other anesthetic action of the leech is a leech exhaust taking.One blood of 5 to 10 ml of blood .. The bleeding lasts for several hours ( approximately 12-24 hours ) and patients lose about 20-30 ml blood.Thus due to the influence of the leech 5 simulteneously patients 100-250 ml of blood loss and blood this way has the advantage of taking no doubt before taking blood from a vein . Taking blood from the organs associated with pain lasted for about an hour . Therefore , creating conditions of many lasts hours and venous drainage and stable fit of certain areas , in certain areas there is usually improved microcirculation , nutrition network , mobile exchange , venous stagnation usually liquidated and organ ischemia usually eliminated.After course of treatment consists of 5-10 procedures using leeches 4-10 good clinical effect is marked.At cardiovascular pathology circulatory decompensation ( ishemic heart disease , defect intimate ) that points to the heart of authentic leech reduce elevated arterial pressure , leading to reduce stagnation in heart , for increased ventilation of the lungs and heart demolition . The effect comes in direct hipotenzive results and anticoagulating action of hirudin and not a smaller degree by reducing peripheral resistance . In the cardiovascular system disease Hirudotherapy play a special role.It easy to find an explanation for the attention to the conditions mentioned above properties.Besides note hirudin ability to affect blood clotting . Fluid and blood clotting conditions provided by the functional interation of two systems of organisms : anticlotting.The anticlotting support system and blood clotting in a liquid state , protecting it from freezing , which both provide protection from bleeding in violation of the integrity of blood vessels . For patients with ischemic heart disease , hypertension , for parents , for patients with diabetes is a major problem as angiopathy and vessel atherosclerosis - results ; atherosclerosis anyone integrety violation of vessels.which blood supply and turn on the system clotting.In terrible results show most of the heart disease and arterial thrombosis in vessels is an important vital organs. The output of thrombosis is heart infarction , brain , lungs brinding sometimes deadly results . Stimulation fibrinolitic activity and anticlotting systems of the blood in disease , the suppression of the formation trombs , and reduce blood viscosity is needed both with medical purpose and for preventive maintenance of ischemic conditions . The mechanism of action of hirudin on thrombin oppressive investigated . hirudin blocks the action of thrombin and the latter loses its properties , does not promote the transition of fibrinogen to fibrin. Besides secret saliva of medicinal leeches block an attachement anitial of platelets and actually press them on the surface collagenus aggregetion . Thus , the secret saliva of leeches and the influence of the drug on blood plasma cellular factor clotting. In much research writer is indicated that after the leech is no normalization parameter assignment separate from coagulogramme - on anitial combination of hyper coagulation system activates and vice versa anticoagulating is becoming more active . Similar effects were not accepted even when we use a known anticoagulant such as heparin and aspirin . We must add the effects lipotropal enzymes from the salivary glands of leeches which consists in the ability of drugs to influence on blood lipids . At the beginning of this century, some scientists expressed the assumption that the development of atherosclerosis can be prevented by applying medicinal leeches . In the 1984-1989 experiment proved that the introduction of long- secret introvenous salivary glands of medicinal leeches to mice that were presented in conditions very last atherosclerosis has been a reduction in lung lipids and abdominal arteries . It is known that lipoproteids low density and low density lipoproteids greatly promoted the development of atherosclerosis , but the high density lipoproteids antisclerous protective factors play a role . On hearing the disease there ishemic redistribution of cholesterol in the different classes of lipoproteids density . Quantity in lipoproteids it raises low-density and very low density lipoproteids reduced resulting in high lipoproteids . In this group had increased levels of lipid authentic general , triglicerids , cholesterol on artery walls . Many writers are engaged in this sign authentically reduction problem triglicerids and cholesterol in the blood after a few sessions Hirudotherapy . This makes it possible to draw the conclusion that the secret lipotropic ensymes leech saliva drug can be used in the atherosclerotic vessel defects regardless of the primary localization of atherosclerosis . Perhaps the effect of " rejuvenation " can look after emergence Hirudotherapy shine in the eyes , skin elasticity improvement , flush appearance , loss of face mask fatigue in patients , strong sort of patient . That's possible because in this case we are dealing with an increase mechanism Vasku.

The nature of Leech Therapy.


The nature of Leech Therapy

leech mouth.

structure leech

Therapeutic properties Hirudotherapy ;

* Common reflexogenic : hypotension
* Bleeds : immunopotentiating
* Internal decongestion : bacteriostatic
* Anticoagulants : anti - inflammatory
* Protective antithrombotic : Local anti - edema
* Thrombolytic : analgesic
* Removal of microcirculation disorders : antiatherosclerotic
* Anti - ischemic : elimination of abnormal interactions between the system.

Doctor Miracle called leech .

Applied drugs have hundreds of years of experience in the fight against human disease . Tens of thousands of different mixtures , tablets , vaccines , drugs , etc. have been created - and they are all human treatment effects . And why professional doctors again and again apply to traditional methods of treatment rather old drug tested by our ancestors ? There is no secret that ... All of these methods are based on natural root . That is why we applied the medical center fashioned method " of treatment for hundreds of diseases ".

Hirudotherapy .

Hirudotherapy ( from Latin leech Hirudo - ) is known since ancient times . Along with general bloodletting , has been regarded as a necessary drug in the treatment of different diseases .
Secrets of the medical leech salivary gland contains more than 100 bioactive substances and has anti -inflammatory action , bacteriostatic , analgesic , completing , it eliminates the microcirculation disorders , vascular permeability restore damaged tissues and organs , eliminating hypoxia ( lack of oxygen ) , reducing blood pressure , improving the activity of the immune system , detoxifies the organism , releases from threatening complications , such as infarction , stroke , improving bioenergy status of the organism .
How confidential leech injection is very simple : placed on the skin to bite the skin , then the leech saliva secret falls into the bloodstream and go to the focus of the disease through the vessel .
In medicine we use hirudoreflexotherapy put leeches on reflexogenic point as " needle Life ".

Indications for treatment with medicinal leeches :

* Cardiovascular diseases , including essential hypertension and ischemic
   diseases , diseases phlebogene of the lower extremities ;
* Chronic bronchitis , pneumonia , bronchial asthma ;
* Digestive tract diseases ( hepatitis , cholecystitis , pancreatitis , gastric ulcer ) ;
* ENT Disease ;
* Paradontosis and other dental diseases ;
* Urological diseases ;
* Male sterility ;
* Skin diseases ( neurodermatitis , psoriasis , eczema , herpes ) ;
* Gynecological disorders ( commissural process in the small pelvis ,
* Female infertility ,
* Adnexitis chronic , parametritis ,
* Endometriosis , fibromastopathy ) ;
* Systemic diseases ( rheumatoid arthritis , systemic lupus erythematosus , scleroderma ) ;
* Osteochondrosis and radiculitis ;
* Eye diseases , including glaucoma ;
* Infantile cerebral paralysis ( ICP ) and other diseases .
* Therapy Hirudotherapy properties :

Blood shortage.

Leech therapy is always associated with a certain degree of blood loss , which is clinically irrelevant in most cases . In clinical trials by Michalsen , losses mean hemoglobin 0.7 mg / dL of blood loss , and clinically relevant not occur in any of the patients studied . However , there is a strong afterbleeding isolated observations with a decrease in hemoglobin value , especially in cases where the leech was accidentally applied directly to the superficial veins . According to the Essen-Mitte Hospital, clinically relevant decrease in hemoglobin (> 3 mg/dL) occurred after leech therapy in two patients , one of whom required blood transfusion ( after being treated with six leeches for osteoarthritis of the knee ) . Asked retrospective , one patient stated that he was , in his opinion , prolonged bleeding injuries in the past . In other cases , afterbleeding from leech bites lasted for 36 hours and must be stopped by skin sutures . extensive coagulation test is then performed but did not reveal any specific coagulation disorders . Prior to the occurrence of abnormal bleeding anamnestically seem important , and patients should be specifically questioned about the incident . Anticoagulants are drugs simultaneously important to see . If low-dose aspirin is prescribed in combination with other platelet aggregation inhibitors ( clopidogrel , Iscover , Plavix ) or high -dose fish oil ( Omacor ) , a small number of leeches ( 3-4 ) should be used initially. blood counts should always be obtained before the start of leech therapy. To reliably prevent the loss of the relevant amount of blood , the leech therapist should never use more than 12 twisters in a single treatment session.

Impaired Wound Healing , superinfection , and Allergies .

Once the leech drops off , the edge of the wound three branches generally swell during 12-48 hours accompanied by feelings of local tension , hot , and flushed . Small blood spots ( ecchymoses ) develop under the skin around the bite of a leech . larger collection of blood rarely develops . Such as superficial bruises , blood spots initially reddish purple , then turn yellowish , and finally disappeared in about two weeks . Localized inflammation , sometimes with papulous height of the bite site , is a relatively common problem that is often accompanied by itching . This inflammation usually subsides quickly when the ice and left . The cause of this disorder is unknown wound - healing . improper handling , especially early termination afterbleeding from wounds , leech head squeezed with pliers , strong deletion of leeches before finished eating , and the failure to keep the animals in freshwater , has frequently been implicated as a potential cause . However , it has also been observed to occur right after leech treatment in isolated cases . Theoretically, Aeromonas hydrophila local infection with a potential cause , but so far there is no evidence of microbiological presence of Aeromonas hydrophila in the wound fluid of affected patients . more severe local inflammation is most often caused by secondary wound contamination or irritation due to mechanical irritation , such as scratching and rubbing . Patients should be informed of the overall importance of protecting the wound from mechanical irritation . According to survey hospitals , more severe local inflammation occurs in three isolated cases : One patient developed erysipelas and two lymphangitis being developed . All cases resolved rapidly in response to treatment with cephalosporin antibiotics and / or gyrase inhibitors . Obedience localization contraindications and recommendations to minimize the risk of local inflammation . In case it is not clear where the progressive and painful skin redness develops , especially if it is associated with increased temperature , the leech therapist should know to administer antibiotics immediately . Pseudolymphomas may occur in rare cases , this is caused by efflorescences papulous reaction to arthropod bites leech . Currently , no data are used to assess the exact frequency of these side effects . To our knowledge , a total of three documented and confirmed cases have been reported .
It is difficult to distinguish the wound - healing secondary disturbance of potential allergic reactions . precise data on the frequency of allergic reactions to the bite of a leech is not available . Local itching , a common side effect of leeching , should not be construed as an allergic reaction . allergic reactions such as urticaria firmly while and locodistant swelling have been reported in a few isolated cases . However , local symptoms , reflex erythema and urticarial dermographism psychovegetatively unstable individuals have been studied more frequently . An older case reports describe the occurrence of short -term anaphylactic shock after six leeches applied to the temple area . Some experts manage systemic antihistamines leech therapy for the treatment of localized allergic reaction to ( empirical ) good success . However , response rates for both antihistamines are not evidence per se of allergens : A certain level of placebo response to antihistamines should also be taken into account . Which may be boosting existing antibiotics allergic to leech therapy is also proposed in case reports .
When interpreting a local reaction that occurs after leech therapy , it is important to remember that the protease in the saliva of leeches release various types of mediators nonimmunological . Furthermore , the reaction may be exacerbated by factors psychovegetative . All in all , there are only a few cases in which a relationship between leech therapy and the occurrence of allergic reactions has been proven with reasonable certainty . However , potential allergic reactions occur after exposure to any foreign protein . Contact dermatitis has also been observed after the use of leeches ointment .
Short-term reactive swelling and / or tenderness of the lymph nodes proximal have occasionally been reported , but most often in patients with delayed wound healing . This phenomenon has most often develops in the groin area after application of leeches for the treatment of knee joint, hip joint, or varicose veins. Quickly and smoothly loss swollen lymph nodes all of which are described in case reports.

Blood poisoning .

Sepsis due to systemic infection with Aeromonas hydrophila has been repeatedly observed after application of leeches in reconstructive surgery indications , but not in any of the other relevant fields used . This supports the conclusion that the risk of Aeromonas hydrophila sepsis increased only in patients with severe underlying disease or immunosuppression , which often occur in surgical candidates for leech therapy . Therefore we recommend concurrent antibiotic treatment for all surgical patients receiving leech therapy . In the rest of the field of use , the primary antibiotic therapy does not seem to be required in accordance with the current state of knowledge , but must be considered relevant contraindications.

Transmission of Infectious Diseases .

At this time , medicinal leeches are generally only used once . Therefore , there is no risk of indirect transfer of infectious diseases from one patient to another . Aeromonas hydrophila primary infection with clinically relevant only if the leech goes for transplant surgery . Concurrent antibiotic treatment therefore recommended for prophylaxis of infection in these cases ( see above ) . Transmission of pathogenic bacteria or other viruses to humans in the context of leech therapy has not been observed so far.

Scars.

If allowed , the former is usually rapid leech shrunk to hardly visible or invisible signs three small branches disappear completely within one to three weeks . However , if the impaired wound healing wounds due to scratching or secondary infections , scars will remain visible for a long time significantly . Papulous skin changes over the last few months have also been reported in isolated cases . In one case , a " reaction to arthropod " permanent also been reported after treatment leeches . Significant scarring may occur especially when leeches are applied to
areas with thin skin and a thin layer of subcutaneous tissue or joint area where the skin is constant movement . Wearing tight clothing after treatment , for example, around the knee , can also result in scar formation .
For aesthetic reasons , the control is recommended when using leeches in the face or in part apparent and other relevant cosmetics from the body . Here , we re- emphasize that it is necessary to thoroughly inform patients about the potential risks of treatment , including scar tissue , and to obtain written informed consent from the patient before going ahead with the treatment .

Safety and Side Effects Leech Therapy .

leech therapy rarely ever lead to serious complications . Local pain medication and short-term side effects itching usual . Prior to treatment , patients should be advised accordingly and asked to sign a consent form that describes the side effects that are relevant ( see Appendix ) . Prevalence data from systematic and prospective studies are only available for a few different side effects of leech therapy . The following analysis is compiled using data from published efficacy studies and case reports , as well as from personal observation . Quality control data on adverse events documented in more than 1000 cases treated at the Hospital Essen-Mitte, especially for the treatment of degenerative joint disease, is also included in the analysis .

Local Pain During Treatment .

Local pain perception varies leeching . Most patients describe the local dragging pain that occurs immediately after leech bites and lasts for about one to five minutes . Such as saliva more and more introduced into the network , the anesthetic effect of leech saliva comes into force . The intensity of the pain from the bite of the leech and the first phase is generally described as a light meal or ignored ( depending on the individual 's pain threshold ) , but some patients find the pain is more intense , similar to a wasp sting . Perceived intensity of leech bites varies from one person to another . subjective pain ratings ranged from " hardly noticeable " to " mild " ( similar to stinging nettle pain ) to " similar to a wasp sting " ( very rare ) . Sensation ( or sometimes a bit strong ) rhythmic normally attract little attention for one to three minutes after the start of feeding .
Does stimulation of the same intensity exactly considered painful or not perceived at all of course depends on the personality of the individual , but also depends on the concentration of the people on the leech or leech therapy attitudes toward . Individual leech jaw size , bite force , the intensity of suction , and the volume and composition of leech saliva also plays a role . Many people never even notice the bites of leeches , for example when they are bitten under the water , while their attention is focused on something else . Often , patients are more anxious that focuses on getting ready for the leech bite , the higher the perception of pain . Leech therapist should keep in mind during the preparation phase and during treatment . A diversion can often help . It is also useful to allow the patient to " get to know " "his" or " her " to convince the leech and leech treatment of patients with a confident manner . If latex gloves must be worn for health reasons , the leech therapist does not have to use forceps on leeches . Many patients lose their aversion to leeches when they show how they swim and elegant beautiful colored patterns on their backs shown . Many people report that the patient's attitude toward the leech changes from negative to positive after a positive treatment experience . Most of the concerns are projected to leech is based on ancient fears rather than on objective facts . We also recommend that kill leeches in front of the patient . If leeches had to be killed after treatment , the animals should be frozen and placed in a solution of 90 % alcohol a few days later .

Itching local .

Transient leech bites itch in place within the first few days after treatment is very common and should not be mistaken for an allergic reaction . In a study of the efficacy of leech therapy in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee , approximately 70 % of patients treated with leeches developed local itching that lasts an average of two days . Transient itching occurs at a frequency that is comparable , but the level of intensity is strong in many cases in which leeches were applied to the more peripheral joints , such as the thumb , but at lower levels after treatment of large joints and vertebrogenic zone , according to empirical assessment . Patients can be advised prior to treatment side effects . Patients should not scratch the bites of leeches , especially after the initial wound closure , because it often delays wound healing . We recommend local cooling solution ( curd wraps, cold moist wrap, wrap vinegar ). For more severe itching, antipruritic commercial products ( eg , ointment Fenistil ) or oral antihistamines may be used . Some experts prescribe oral antihistamines leech therapy to patients in conjunction with a known history of a severe reaction ( itching and redness of the skin ) for leech therapy . Isolated reports describe brief relapse hives are in certain situations ( eg , high temperature ) for several months after an otherwise uneventful course of leech therapy .

Hypotension and Vasovagal attack.

Patients with a history of developing vasovagal attack or syncope ( fainting ) before other invasive treatment methods also can develop a reaction like that at the start of or during leech therapy . One survey showed that vasovagal attack occurs in one of 1000 leech treatment performed in our hospital . Therefore , the leech therapist should always ask about the patient's prior history of vasovagal attack or pass out before procedures such as blood sampling or acupuncture . To guard against vasovagal attack , the patient should drink plenty of fluids before and during treatment , and treatment should always be done in a soothing environment while the patient is lying down . Two cases of hypotension and syncope outpatient Vasodepressor following leech therapy were also observed . Both patients known arterial hypertension and three antihypertensive drugs , which they continue to take as normal . A few hours after leech therapy , two patients developed a brief attack of benign syncope . It is important to remember that leeching has known antihypertensive effects when treating patients on antihypertensive drugs . Patients should drink plenty of fluids . If there is a strong flow of blood from leech bites , the patient's blood pressure should be monitored and antihypertensive medications should be adjusted as needed .
Prior to treatment , patients should be advised accordingly and asked to sign a consent form that describes the side effects that are relevant ( see Appendix ) . Prevalence data from systematic and prospective studies are only available for a few different side effects of leech therapy . The following analysis is compiled using data from published efficacy studies and case reports , as well as from personal observation . Quality control data on adverse events documented in more than 1000 cases treated at the Hospital Essen - Mitte , especially for the treatment of degenerative joint disease , is also included in the analysis .

Local Pain During Treatment .

Local pain perception varies leeching . Most patients describe the local dragging pain that occurs immediately after leech bites and lasts for about one to five minutes . Such as saliva more and more introduced into the network , the anesthetic effect of leech saliva comes into force . The intensity of the pain from the bite of the leech and the first phase is generally described as a light meal or ignored ( depending on the individual 's pain threshold ) , but some patients find the pain is more intense , similar to a wasp sting . Perceived intensity of leech bites varies from one person to another . subjective pain ratings ranged from " hardly noticeable " to " mild " ( similar to stinging nettle pain ) to " similar to a wasp sting " ( very rare ) . Sensation ( or sometimes a bit strong ) rhythmic normally attract little attention for one to three minutes after the start of feeding .
Does stimulation of the same intensity exactly considered painful or not perceived at all of course depends on the personality of the individual , but also depends on the concentration of the people on the leech or leech therapy attitudes toward . Individual leech jaw size , bite force , the intensity of suction , and the volume and composition of leech saliva also plays a role . Many people never even notice the bites of leeches , for example when they are bitten under the water , while their attention is focused on something else . Often , patients are more anxious that focuses on getting ready for the leech bite , the higher the perception of pain . Leech therapist should keep in mind during the preparation phase and during treatment . A diversion can often help . It is also useful to allow the patient to " get to know " "his" or " her " to convince the leech and leech treatment of patients with a confident manner . If latex gloves must be worn for health reasons , the leech therapist does not have to use forceps on leeches . Many patients lose their aversion to leeches when they show how they swim and elegant beautiful colored patterns on their backs shown . Many people report that the patient's attitude toward the leech changes from negative to positive after a positive treatment experience . Most of the concerns are projected to leech is based on ancient fears rather than on objective facts . We also recommend that kill leeches in front of the patient . If leeches had to be killed after treatment , the animals should be frozen and placed in a solution of 90 % alcohol a few days later .

Itching local .

Transient leech bites itch in place within the first few days after treatment is very common and should not be mistaken for an allergic reaction . In a study of the efficacy of leech therapy in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee , approximately 70 % of patients treated with leeches developed local itching that lasts an average of two days . Transient itching occurs at a frequency that is comparable , but the level of intensity is strong in many cases in which leeches were applied to the more peripheral joints , such as the thumb , but at lower levels after treatment of large joints and vertebrogenic zone , according to empirical assessment . Patients can be advised prior to treatment side effects . Patients should not scratch the bites of leeches , especially after the initial wound closure , because it often delays wound healing . We recommend local cooling solution ( curd wraps, cold moist wrap, wrap vinegar ). For more severe itching, antipruritic commercial products ( eg , ointment Fenistil ) or oral antihistamines may be used . Some experts prescribe oral antihistamines leech therapy to patients in conjunction with a known history of a severe reaction ( itching and redness of the skin ) for leech therapy . Isolated reports describe brief relapse hives are in certain situations ( eg , high temperature ) for several months after an otherwise uneventful course of leech therapy .

Hypotension and Vasovagal attack .

Patients with a history of developing vasovagal attack or syncope ( fainting ) before other invasive treatment methods also can develop a reaction like that at the start of or during leech therapy . One survey showed that vasovagal attack occurs in one of 1000 leech treatment performed in our hospital . Therefore , the leech therapist should always ask about the patient's prior history of vasovagal attack or pass out before procedures such as blood sampling or acupuncture . To guard against vasovagal attack , the patient should drink plenty of fluids before and during treatment , and treatment should always be done in a soothing environment while the patient is lying down . Two cases of hypotension and syncope outpatient Vasodepressor following leech therapy were also observed . Both patients known arterial hypertension and three antihypertensive drugs , which they continue to take as normal . A few hours after leech therapy , two patients developed a brief attack of benign syncope . It is important to remember that leeching has known antihypertensive effects when treating patients on antihypertensive drugs . Patients should drink plenty of fluids . If there is a strong flow of blood from leech bites , the patient's blood pressure should be monitored and antihypertensive medications should be adjusted as needed .

Medicinal leeches .

Approximately 600 species of leeches have been identified to date , but only about 15 are used in the treatment . Leeches classified as " medicinal leeches " , Hirudo medicinalis , in the narrow sense has been used to treat patients for centuries .
The first documented account of the use of Hirudo medicinalis for medicinal purposes dates back to the time of Hippocrates . According to Sanskrit writings , Dhavantari , the father of Indian medicine , held nectar in one hand and a leech on the other hand . Leech therapy is also used in traditional Chinese medicine . Paintings of medicinal leeches have been found in the tombs of pharaohs . The Solomon Parables also describe leech treatment use in ancient medicine . Leech therapy in the treatment of Greece can be found in the poem by Nicandros Alexipharmacia . The Roman physician Galen classified leech terapy as a method to achieve a healthy balance . Avicenna also used leeches for healing aids. In the past leeches have proven the most effective treatment in many cases. Leeches were especially useful in the treatment of battle wounds . European countries in the 18th and 19th centuries imported over 100 million leeches every year to meet the high demand .
Currently , doctors use leeches for treating abscesses , painful joints , glaucoma , myasthenia , and to heal venous diseases and thrombosis . Medical leeches are used in plastic surgery , to improve brain circulation and for the treatment of infertility .
Common indications for leech therapy are :
inflammatory reaction
Heart Disease
Rheumatic Diseases
Tendovaginitis and Tendinitis
Venous Disease and Varicose Veins
arthrosis
arthritis
muscle tension
Antidyscratic therapy ( blood purification and regeneration ) of toxicoses and mental illness
Thrombosis and embolism
Passive congestions and spastic conditions
Vertebrogenic Pain Syndromes
Transudates and exudates
A simple principle lies at the heart of all miracles - Hirudo . During feeding, leeches secrete a complex mixture of different biologically and pharmacologically active ingredients into the wound . Hirudin is the best known component of leech saliva . Hirudin is sometimes used to describe all the active substances in leech saliva . In fact , hirudin only refer to a particular active substance in leech salive . Component of leech saliva drug effects in the host's body is :
* Hirudin : Inhibits blood coagulation by binding to thrombin
* Calin : Inhibits blood clots by blocking the binding of von factors
   Willebrand for collagen . Inhibit collagen - mediated platelet aggregation
* Destabilase : Monomerizing activities . Soluble fibrin . effects of thrombolytic
* Hirustasin : Inhibits kallikrein , trypsin , chymotrypsin , cathepsin G neutropholic
* Bdellins : Anti - inflammatory . Inhibit trypsin , plasmin , acrosin
* Hyaluronidase : Increasing the viscosity of the interstitial . antibiotic
* Tryptase inhibitors : Inhibits proteolytic enzymes of host mast cells
* Eglins : Anti - inflammatory. Inhibit the activity of alpha - chymotrypsin, chymase, substilisin, elastase, cathepsin G
Inhibiting Factor Xa inhibitors : coagulation factor xa activity by forming
  equimolar complex
* Inhibitors : Complementary May possibly replace natural complement inhibitors if they lack
* Carboxypeptidase : A inhibitors Increases blood flow at the site of the bite
* Histaminelike : vasodilator substances . Increases blood flow at the site of the bite
* Acetylcholine : vasodilator
* Subsctance anesthesia : anesthesia

Effects leech bites .

Although some types of blood sucking leeches, not all species can bite,
only 90  % of their feed from decomposing bodies and open wounds of amphibians , reptiles, waterfowl, fish, and mammals ( including, but not limited to, humans ). A leech attaches when biting, and will remain attached to having a blood content. Because anticoagulant ( hirudin ) that leeches secrete , bites may bleed more than normal wound after the leech removed. Effect of anticoagulants will disappear a few hours after the leech is removed and the wound cleaned .
Leeches normally carry parasites in their digestive tract that can not survive in humans and do not pose a threat . However , bacteria , viruses , and parasites from previous blood sources can survive within a leech for months , and may be transmitted back to humans . A study found both HIV and hepatitis in African leeches from Cameroon . ( Hirudotherapy ethics therefore is always using leeches that had never been used )
Although some types of blood sucking leeches, not all species can bite, only 90% of their feed from decomposing bodies and open wounds of amphibians, reptiles, waterfowl, fish, and mammals (including, but not limited to, humans). A leech attaches when biting, and will remain attached to having a blood content. Because anticoagulant (hirudin) that leeches secrete, bites may bleed more than normal wound after the leech removed. Effect of anticoagulants will disappear a few hours after the leech is removed and the wound cleaned. Leeches normally carry parasites in their digestive tract that can not survive in humans and do not pose a threat. However, bacteria, viruses, and parasites from previous blood sources can survive within a leech for months, and may be transmitted back to humans.
A study found both HIVdan hepatitis in African leeches from Cameroon. (Hirudotherapy ethics therefore is always using leeches that had never been used).
Thank you for reading this article . Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno.
sunarnobambang86@gmail.com
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http://primadonablog.blogspot.com/2014/01/did-you-know-about-leeches-?.html
DatePublished: January 27, 2014 at 11:30
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Saturday, 13 February 2016

Did You Know The Benefits of Milk Etawa.

Benefits of Milk Milk Etawa Etawa believed to have tremendous benefits for a variety of health. It is based on research that Etawa milk contains nutrients and minerals are fairly complete. Among them, phosphorus, calcium, sodium and fluorine. Therefore, milk Etawa claimed to have benefits that almost equivalent to breastmilk.
Etawa.

By looking at the nutritional content is very diverse and complete, it is not surprising that the benefits of milk Etawa also quite numerous and varied. What are the benefits of milk Etawa? Some of the reviews about the health benefits of milk for Etawa.

Benefits and Uses Milk Etawa are :

It has a natural anti-inflammatory properties.

Milk is naturally homogenized Etawa. Fat globules contained in milk Etawa can solve themselves into smaller parts when compared to cow's milk. It is beneficial to facilitate digestion and absorption of food by the body.

For people who suffer from bowel problems or gastrointestinal disorders caused by inflammation, milk Etawa very good to eat. Probiotic properties found in milk Etawa can encourage the development of the digestive system better.

Contains essential fatty acids.

Etawa milk contains about 35% higher fatty acids when compared to cow's milk only has 17%. In addition, milk Etawa more pronounced efficacy when taken in a raw state. Even for those who are lactose intolerant. Milk Etawa also beneficial for lowering high cholesterol. Antimicrobial fatty acids such as caprylic and capric acid found in milk Etawa also useful for improving the digestive system.

Improve the digestive system.

As mentioned earlier, milk Etawa very good for digestive health. This milk has the ability to soothe your digestive tract and suppress hunger effectively making it very suitable for weight loss. Moreover, the absence of protein complexes in milk Etawa make less milk allergy compared with cow's milk.

Does not cause allergies.

Many people complain that turns cow's milk can make them prone to allergies and respiratory diseases. But you do not worry, milk Etawa is an alternative that is very potent and efficacious to resolve the issue. High fat content in cow's milk is the cause of the accumulation of mucus that trigger allergies. Fat globules contained in milk Etawa only one ninth of the fat present in cow's milk. Therefore, irritation of your intestines due to consumption of milk can be avoided.

Acting as a metabolic agent.

Research and studies conducted on milk Etawa concluded that milk is closely related Etawa increased ability to absorb iron and copper, especially in people who have impaired digestive system.

Rich in calcium.

Although people consume cow's milk to increase calcium intake and prevent osteoporosis, you should also try Etawa milk because milk Etawa very rich in calcium and amino acid tryptophan.

As good nutrition and natural.

Goats are known as bio-organic sodium animals because efficacious to improve morale, flexibility and vitality for those who like to consume goat milk. Sodium bio-organic elements that keep joints supple and healthy. In addition, milk Etawa also widely used as a drug to maintain and regenerate the nervous system.

Can treat tuberculosis and asthma.

Milk Etawa it can be used as a medicine to cure tuberculosis and asthma because it contains Fluorine and Betakasein. In addition, milk Etawa also beneficial for those who have problems with breathing.

Good for pregnant and lactating mothers.

Another benefit of milk Etawa named as additional nutrition for pregnant women. In addition, the impact of milk consumption in pregnant women Etawa will nourish the fetus as well. As for nursing mothers, milk Etawa good to facilitate breastfeeding.

Can nourish the skin.

Did you know that milk Etawa it can be used as face masks and scrubs. This method is useful for smoothing the skin and tightens pores so free from various skin problems such as acne.

Benefits of Milk Etawa For Body And Skin.

Like any other milks, milk Etawa also very well taken by all ages because it is very beneficial for health. Of the value of the nutrients, milk Etawa not inferior to other milks, milk even Etawa has several advantages which are very striking. Milk Etawa also recommended consumed for the growth of the baby, pregnant women, breast-feeding mothers, the elderly, and also for healing various diseases as well as for skin beauty. Etawa milk can also be processed into milk powder, cheese, and other dairy products using.

Regarding Milk Mistaken assumption Etawa.

The myth that assumes that goat's milk should not be consumed by people with hypertension (high blood pressure) is not true. The content of "Potassium (Potassium)" contained in the milk Etawa it serves to control blood pressure and may reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke.

Content of Milk Etawa.

Results of research conducted by the United State Department of Agriculture (USDA) shows dairy nutrition Etawa approaching perfect composition of breast milk. Every 100 grams of goat milk contains 3-4% protein, 4-7% fat, 4.5% carbohydrates, 134 grams of calcium and 111 g of phosphorus. The chemical composition Etawa milk contains proteins, fats, carbohydrates, calories, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, sodium, potassium, vitamin A, B1 (IU), B2 (mg), B6, B12, C, D, E, Niacin , V, Pantotenant Acid, Choline and Inositol. Children who consume goat milk has good bone density, increased hemoglobin levels, as well as the adequacy of vitamin A, B1, B2 and B3 are essential for the growth and development of brain and nerve cells. Amino acids containing sulfur element methionine, cystine and cysteine essential for building healthy brain and nervous system, as well as play a role in the formation of blood cells antidote (detoxification) of hazardous chemicals into the body.

Excess Milk Etawa.

- In terms of nutrition, composition, and the nature, Milk Etawa composition and chemical properties of natural breast milk contains close.
- Have antiseptic properties, natural and can help reduce the breeding of bacteria in the body. This is caused the presence of Fluorine are 10-100 times greater than in cow's milk.
- Is wet (Alkaline Food) that is safe for the body.
- Protein lactase its effect soft and lightweight, so it does not cause diarrhea.
- Protein content contained better than eggs.
- Fat is easily digested because it has a soft and smooth texture is smaller than the grain fat cow's milk or other milk. Homogeneous and also be experienced.
- This makes it easier to digest so that suppress the onset of allergic reactions.
- Milk Etawa can be ingested by humans 20 minutes faster than the other milk.
- Efficacy for the Health of Dairy Ingredients Etawa
- Etawa milk contains sodium (Na), fluorine (F), Calcium (C), and phosphorus (P) as the dominant chemical elements and other nutritional content.

Milk Etawa has a property :

- Helps digestion and neutralize stomach acid.
- As a healing therapy of asthma, tuberculosis and acute lung infection chronic.
- Helps to treat allergic skin and other organs.
- Increase stamina and endurance.
- Addressing the problem of impotence / frigidity and increase the vitality of adult men and women.
- Efficacious for patients with abnormal renal function or in the medical world called neprotic syndrome.
- Efficacious as a healing therapy uric acid.
- Efficacious for bone formation, is highly recommended for those who suffer from rheumatism and prevent bone loss / OSTEOPHOROSIS.
- Helping to provide nutrition and other metabolic disorders.
- Helps smooth the skin because it has no milk Etawa in the form of soap.
Thank you for reading this article. Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno. sunarnobambang86@gmail.com
author:
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name: Bambang Sunarno.
http://primadonablog.blogspot.com/2015/02/did-you-know-the-benefits-of-milk-etawa.html
DatePublished: 13 February 2015 at 18:58
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Sunday, 30 August 2015

Do You Know Urdu.

Urdu or Urdu Zabaan is one of the youngest language of Indo-Aryan branch. The word 'Urdu' comes from the Turkish language 'Ordu' meaning camp or tent. This language was originally estimated Khari Boli roots of the language spoken by the inhabitants of the city of New Delhi.
The origin of these languages ​​are also many versions, one of which is that in the period between the years 413-583 AH is a period in which the Persian and Turkish-speaking Muslims began to migrate to the mainland Hindustan, especially Punjab. These immigrants made up the army, and the clergy. The scholars began to spread the teachings of Islam to this region at the same time. Mixed marriages between immigrants from Persia and the local population was there, and eventually led to a mixture of Persian and Punjabi language which became the forerunner of the birth of Urdu. There is another version which revealed that during the transfer of power Qutubuddin Aibak from Lahore to New Delhi in 1193 also raises the interaction between the authorities and local residents so comes as a language called Urdu.
Other Names Urdu: Dakhini (Dakani, Deccan, Desia, Mirgan), Pinjari, Rekhta (Rekhti). In southern India name changed to Dakhini, whereas in the southwest of India into Gurjari. In the area of ​​New Delhi the name was changed from Hindi into Hindavi and Hindustani.

The spread of the language.

This language is used around approximately 100 million Muslim people in Pakistan and India. Urdu is actually similar to Hindi, because the roots are similar to those of Sanskrit is the mother of all languages ​​in the subcontinent.
Number of native speakers of Urdu currently reaches 60.29 million inhabitants and 104 million people including using it as a second language (1999).
In addition to the above two countries, Urdu is also used by about 600 thousand Bihari Muslims who live in refugee camps Bangladesh.

Relations Urdu and Hindi.

Urdu and Hindi are basically the same language, so the British colonial period in order to bridge the differences between Hinduism and Islam are tapered at that time, in use the term Hindustani. However, since the splitting of India and Pakistan in 1947, the term is sticking Hindi and Urdu.
Hindi and Urdu speakers in everyday conversation can understand each other because of the many similarities in the vocabulary. Both of these languages ​​also form Hindustani, which is one language with the largest number of speakers in the world and the most preferred.

However, a fundamental difference of these two languages ​​are :

* Vocabulary of Urdu.

Absorbing many words from Arabic and Persian languages, while Hindi is more inclined to the revival of the words in Sanskrit.

* The writing system.

Hindi uses the Devanagari alphabet while Urdu wearing Arab-Persian writing systems with the addition of certain letters and written through Nastaliq system.
The more fundamental difference which causes Hindi and Urdu speakers have difficulty in understanding each other's language. Urdu speakers would be able to understand the Bollywood films that speak Hindi, but will have difficulty in understanding the news broadcasts in these languages ​​because of the influence of Sanskrit in Hindi, and vice versa.

The status of the language.

Is an official language in Pakistan, even though the native speakers only 8% of the population and generally come from the Mohajir exodus from India in 1947. While in India, Urdu is also one of the official languages ​​with a concentration of speakers in the state Jammu- Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh and Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh.

Urdu literature.

Urdu is a very rich language, and high flavor. Lots of literary works written in this language and influential in the world of literature, both in the South Asia region, and the Islamic world in general. Urdu poetry for the first time written by Masud Saad Salman in 1066 AD. Streams of literature (prose and poetry) in Urdu very much, such as:
Ghazal
Rubai
Afsaana
Daastaan
Margie
Nauha
Noha
Geet
Qaseeda
Besides a lot of Islamic writings were written in Urdu and has been translated into various languages ​​in the world, for example the works of Muhammad Iqbal were very prominent.

Urdu dialect.

In the process, Urdu is also divided into several dialects, dialect known among other Dakhini or Deccan used in South India region, and the difference with Baku are fewer Urdu words of Arabic-Persian therein. While Rekhna is a variant used in Urdu literature.

Example.

Salaam! / Adaab! = Hello!
Kaise hain aap? / Aap kaa hai kiyaa thing? = How are you?
Main Theek hun = Doing well
Shukriya = Thank you
Kiyaa aap kaa naam hai? = What is your name?
Meraa naam ... .hai = My name is ...
Khuda Hafiz! / Allah Hafiz! = Farewell!
hallo how are friends

Similarities and differences between Hindi and Urdu.

Relations Hindi and Urdu.

Equation:

• Hindi and Urdu, including Indo-Aryan language belonging to the Indo-European languages, which evolved from the classical Indian language of Sanskrit. Both evolved from khadi boli language which is used in Delhi and surrounding areas.

• In terms of grammar both.
• In everyday conversation (informal) Hindi and Urdu speakers can understand each other. In the context of everyday use is often called the Hindustani language.
• core vocabulary is derived from Sanskrit.

Differences:

HINDI.

• Written with Devanagari alphabet (which is also used to write Marathi, Sanskrit, Nepali, Konkani). Examples Hindi word written हिन्दी or हिंदी.

• In the context of official atmosphere (formal) use a lot of Hindi vocabulary is derived from Sanskrit. Examples official language is used in the field of governance, the field of religion (Hindu), TV news broadcasts, official meetings or terms of disciplines. Hindi the official vocabulary Sanskrit Hindi also called standard or pure Hindi or shuddh hindi.

• Status as the first official language in India (but not all Indians can speak Hindi, some regard it as their mother tongue first, there is also considered as a second language in addition to regional languages ​​and some are not at all.
• Hindi identified with the Indian Hindu.

URDU.

• Written in Arabic Alphabet with Nastaaliq style. Examples of Urdu words written اردو

• In the context of the official (formal) urdu many uses vocabulary that comes from Persian and Arabic. Examples official language is used in the field of governance, the field of religion (Islam), TV news broadcasts, official meetings or terms of disciplines.

• Have status of one of the languages ​​recognized by the Government of India (contained in the legislation along with 18 other languages), whereas in Pakistan the status of state language.

The point until now no Hindi and Urdu were considered the same language there also are considered different languages.

Is Bollywood films using Hindi or Urdu?

In the film used to mix both, as I explained that the daily use of Hindi and Urdu are the same language, each of which speakers can understand one another, often also referred to as Hindustani language. Typically title bollywood movies written by Hindi & Urdu:

KHUSHI Kabhi Kabhi Gham
Hindi: कभी ख़ुशी कभी ग़म
Urdu: کبھی خوشی کبھی غم

MAIN HOON NA
Hindi: मैं हूं ना
Urdu: میں ہوں نا

Fiza
Hindi: फ़िज़ा
Urdu: فضا

Dil Hai Tumhara
Hindi: दिल है तुम्हारा
Urdu: دل ہے تمہارا

GHAJINI
Hindi: गजनी
Urdu: گجینی

PLAYERS
Hindi: प्लेयर्स
Urdu: پلییرس
Etc.

Only in dialogue bollywood films also often includes vocabulary from other languages, especially Panjabi, Marathi, Gujrati, Bengali and English.

You may often hear words like: Mohabbat, Intazaar because, Intazaam because, err, Insaaf, qadam (kadam), Qasam (Kassam), Ghalat, Sahi, Najaayaz, mumkin, Jawaani, Ittafaq, Zeher, Qurbaan (Kurbaan), Manzur, Nazar, Haq, Original and asliyat, Insaan and Insaaniyat, qanoon (kanoon), Kaghaz, Shuru karna and Shuruat, Yaqeen (Yakeen), Death, Zinda and Zindagi, Farz, Museebat, Subah, Qaidi (Kaidi), Hiraasat, Aazad, trips can, Dost, Safar, Aaadat, Qareeb (Kareeb), Khayal, Dimaagh, Lekin, Jannat, Nark, Qabil (Cain), Taraqqi, Vaada, Mehnat, Arzoo, Junoon, Mard, Aurat, Gadar, Hamla?

Vocabularies are not the original vocabulary of Hindi, but the vocabulary of Urdu (which are all derived from Arabic and Persian). Even so native speakers hindi already understand and are often used primarily in everyday use. Even so each has its equivalent in Hindi (Hindi standard) derived from Sanskrit, for example:

Intazaar karna = Prateeksha because, Insaaf = nyaay, Mohabbat = Prem, Pyaar, Haq = Adhikaar, Aadmi = Vyakti, Taraqqi = Unnati, Lekin = Kintu, Parantu, Aazad = Autonomous, Insaan = Manushya, Zinda = Jivit, Death = Mrityu, Mehnat = Parishram, Aurat = Mahila, Vaada = Vachan. Dost = Partner, Hamla = Akraman et cetera.

Examples:
"Are you waiting for someone?"
(Standards) Hindi: क्या आप किसी की प्रतीकशा (का इन्तज़ार) कर रहे हैं?
"Kya aap ki lattice prateeksha (ka intazaar) kar rahe hain?"

Urdu: کیا آپ کسی کا انتظارکر رہے ہیں
"Lattice aap ka kya kar rahe hain intazaar?"

Note: In some Hindi dictionary vocabulary above standards will not be found. So if you want to understand the dialogue besides Hindi Bollywood should also use Urdu dictionary.

So it's up to you, whether Hindi & Urdu languages ​​the same or different? .. Because it is unique and confusing ... if you ask for example, "Aap Kaise hain?" Or "Subah Subah itni aawaz Kyon? Ye sab kya ho raha hai? "To the speakers of Hindi (or not speakers) then surely you will be called" speaking Hindi "and if to speakers of Urdu (both in India and Pakistan) then you are called" speaking Urdu ".  Thank you have read this article.
Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno. sunarnobambang86@gmail.com
author:
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name: Bambang Sunarno.
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DatePublished: August 30, 2015 at 18:28
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Do You Know Vedic Sanskrit.

Sanskrit Vedas or abbreviated as the language of the Vedas is the language used in the scriptures of the Vedas, the sacred texts of the start of India. The earliest Vedic texts that Ṛgweda, estimated to be written in the 2nd millennium BC, and the use of language of the Vedas implemented until approximately the year 500 BC, when the classical Sanskrit language was codified Panini begin to appear.
Vedic form of Sanskrit is a close derivative of Proto-Indo-Iranian, and still pretty similar (with a difference of approximately 1,500 years) of Proto-Indo-Europa, which reconstructed the form language of all Indo-European languages. Vedic Sanskrit is the oldest language is still found on the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. The language is still very close to the language of Avesta, the sacred language of religion Zoroastrianism. Kinship between Sanskrit languages ​​of more recent European languages ​​such as Greek, Latin and English can be seen in the following words: Ing. mother / Skt. मतृ MATR or Ing. father / Skt. पितृ pitṛ.
An other interesting equation can be found from Sanskrit and Persian words below sthaan and staan ​​which means "land" or "state" (related to the English word that means to stand "stand").

History.

Five different stages can be distinguished in the development of the Vedic language.

Rgweda.

Book Rgweda contains most forms arkhais of all Vedic texts and still also contains many elements along the Indo-Iranian language in both form and content language text, which is not found in the other Vedic texts. Except for some parts, (book 1st to 10th), is expected to have finished Rgweda book written in 1500 BC.

Mantra language.

This period includes both the mantra and prose language in the book Atharva Veda (Paippalada and Shaunakiya), Rgweda Khilani, Samaveda Samhita (containing approximately 75 spells that do not exist in the book Rgweda), and spells Yajurveda. These texts are largely taken from Rgweda, but it has changed a lot, both in terms of linguistic and commentary. Some important changes including changing wiṣwa word "all" being sarwa, and widespread forms of basic verbs kuru- (in the book written Rgweda krno-). This period coincided with the rise of the early Iron Age in northwest India (iron was first mentioned in the book Atharva Veda), and the emergence of the Kuru kingdom, approximately in the 12th century BC.

Samhita prose text.

This period is characterized by the emergence of collecting and codifying the canon of the Vedas. An important linguistic change is the disappearance of injunktivus nd in modes aorist. Courant comment Yajurveda (MS, KS) included in this period.

Brahmana prose text.

The texts themselves of Chess Vedic brahmanas including this period, as well as the oldest Upanishads (BAU, Chu, JUB).

Silk language.

This language is the last stage of Vedic Sanskrit language until about 500 BC, contains most Śrauta and Grhya Sutras, and some Upanishads (eg Kathu, MaitrU. Some of the more recent Upanishads including the post-Vedic).
Around the year 500 BC factors of cultural, political and linguistic contribute in ending the Vedic period. Codification Vedic rites peaked, and movements such as Vedanta rival and earlier forms of Buddhism, who prefers to use the language of the people rather than Sanskrit Pali in writing their texts, began to emerge. King Darius I of Persia invaded the Indus Valley and the center of political power in India began to move eastward, to around the river Ganges.

Grammar.

Vedic Sanskrit had a labial fricative sounds [f], called upadhmaniya, and a velar fricative [x], called jihwamuliya. Both are allophones than visarga: upadhmaniya appear before p and ph, jihwamuliya before k and kh. Vedic Sanskrit also has a special letter ळ (Devanagari script) for l retrofleks, an allophone between vowels d, which is unusual in as L or LH switch. In distinguishing l vokalik than retrofleks l, l vokalik sometimes on the switch by using diacritical mark a circle under the letter, L; if this is done, r vokalik also depicted with a circle, R, for the sake of consistency principle.
Vedic Sanskrit is a language that has a pitch accent (Indonesia?). Due to a small number of words according to Vedic pelafazan contains a so-called independent swarita on a short vowel, it can be said that the language of the Vedas "cutting edge" is a tone language marginally. However, please note that the versions Rgweda metrics that have been reconstructed, almost every syllable containing swarita must be returned to a two-syllable sequence in which the first contains a anusvara and the second contains the so-called free swarita. So early Vedic language is not a language but a language that tone using the pitch accent.
In addition it has a shape subjunktivus Vedic language, which is not mentioned in the grammar Panini and is generally considered to have been lost at the time, at least in a general sentence construction.
I-long basis to distinguish inflection Goddess and inflection Wrkis, a distinction that has been lost in the classical Sanskrit language.
Thank you for reading this article. Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno. sunarnobambang86@gmail.com
author:
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name: Bambang Sunarno.
http://primadonablog.blogspot.com/2015/08/do-you-know-vedic-sanskrit.html
DatePublished: August 30, 2015 at 11:45
Tag : Do You Know Vedic Sanskrit.
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Do You Know Sanskrit.

Sanskrit (spelling not standardized: Sanskrit) is one of the Indo-European languages ​​most parents are still known and among the longest history. Language which can match its 'age' the language of Indo-European language family Het language only. The Sanskrit word, in Sanskrit language Saṃskṛtabhāsa means perfect. That is, the opposite of Prakrit language, or the language of the people.
Sanskrit is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages ​​of India. This language also has the same status in Nepal.

Its position in the cultures of South Asia and Southeast Asia is similar to the position of Latin and Greek in Europe. Sanskrit evolved into many modern languages ​​in the Indian subcontinent. This language appears in the form of pre-classic as the language of the Vedas. Rgweda contained in the book is the phase of the oldest and most arkhais. This text is thought to originate from approximately 1700 BC and Vedic Sanskrit is an Indo-Aryan language of the oldest found and one member of the Indo-European language family which is the oldest.

Khazanah Sanskrit literature includes poetry that has a rich tradition, drama and also the texts of scientific, technical, philosophical, and religious. Currently Sanskrit is still widely used as a ceremonial language in Hindu ceremonies in the form stotra and spells. Sanskrit language spoken is still used in some traditional institutions in India and there are even some attempt to revive Sanskrit.
Which will be discussed in this article is the Classical Sanskrit as reviewed the essay Panini Sanskrit grammar, in about 500 BC.

History.

Saṃskṛta- adjective meaning "cultured". The language referred to as saṃskṛtā VAK "language of culture" by definition has always been a language that is "high", used for religious purposes and scientific purposes and contrary to the language spoken by the common people. This language is also called deva-bhāṣā which means "language of gods". Sanskrit grammar is the oldest still preserved bouquet Pāṇini and entitled Aṣṭādhyāyī ("Grammar Eight Chapters") that more or less comes from the 5th century BC. This grammar is primarily a normative or prescriptive grammar which mainly regulate the use of standardized manner and not descriptive, although this grammar also contains descriptive parts especially regarding Vedic forms that are not used anymore in the days of Panini.

Sanskrit including Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family. Together with the Iranian languages, including Sanskrit Indo-Iranian language family and is part of a group Satem language of Indo-European languages, which also includes the Balto-Slavic branch.
When the Sanskrit term emerged in India, this language is not seen as a distinct language from other languages, but primarily as a form of subtle or cultured in speech. Knowledge of Sanskrit was a marker of social class and language is mainly taught to members of higher castes, through a careful analysis of the grammar of Sanskrit linguist like Pāṇini. Sanskrit as the language of the educated in India are in addition to the languages ​​Prakreta which is the language of the people and finally evolved into a language-modern Indo-Aryan languages ​​(Hindi, Assamese language, Urdu, Bengali and so on). Most of the Dravidian languages ​​of India, although a part of different language families, they are strongly influenced Sanskrit, especially in the form of loan words. Kannada, Telugu and Malayalam have the largest number of words uptake while Tamil has the lowest. The influence of Sanskrit on these languages ​​recognized by the discourse of Tat Sama ("together") and Tat Bhava ("roots"). While the Sanskrit itself is also getting language Dravidian substratum influence since the very beginning.

Vedic Sanskrit.

Sanskrit Vedas or abbreviated as the language of the Vedas is the language used in the scriptures of the Vedas, the sacred texts of the start of India. The earliest Vedic texts that Ṛgweda, estimated to be written in the 2nd millennium BC, and the use of language of the Vedas implemented until approximately the year 500 BC, when the classical Sanskrit language was codified Panini begin to appear.
Vedic form of Sanskrit is a close derivative of Proto-Indo-Iranian, and still pretty similar (with a difference of approximately 1,500 years) of Proto-Indo-Europa, which reconstructed the form language of all Indo-European languages. Vedic Sanskrit is the oldest language is still found on the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. The language is still very close to the language of Avesta, the sacred language of religion Zoroastrianism. Kinship between Sanskrit languages ​​of more recent European languages ​​such as Greek, Latin and English can be seen in the following words: Ing. mother / Skt. मतृ MATR or Ing. father / Skt. पितृ pitṛ.

Research by the Europeans.

Research Sanskrit by Europeans started by Heinrich Roth (1620-1668) and Johann Ernst Hanxleden (1681-1731), and continued with proposals Indo-European language family by Sir William Jones. It plays an important role in the development of comparative linguistics in the Western World.
Sir William Jones, on the occasion of lecturing to Asiatick Society of Bengal in Calcutta, February 2, 1786, said:
"" Sanskrit, however old-fashioned it, has amazing structure; more perfect than Greek, more extensive than Latin and more refined and cultured than both, but has been linked more closely on both, either in the form of root words workplace or grammatical form, which can not happen just by chance; a very close relationship, so no one linguist who could examine all three, without believing that they arise from the same source, that possibility is not there. " "
Indeed, linguistics (along with phonology, etc.) First appeared among the ancient Indian grammarian who sought to establish laws Sanskrit. Modern linguistic science owes much to them and today many key terms such as bahuvrihi and devotion sounds taken from Sanskrit.

Some traits.

Case.

One of the major features of Sanskrit was a case in this language, which amounted to 8. In Latin were still allied there were only 5 cases. In addition there are three genders in Sanskrit, masculine, feminine and neuter and three mode number, singular, dual and plural:
a). nominative
b). vocative
c). accusative case
d). instrumentalist case
e). dative case
f). ablative case
g). genitive
h). locative case

Examples Sanskrit writings.

Below is presented an example of all cases of a singular masculine word deva (god, God or King).

Singular:

nom. devas meaning: "Gods"
VOK. (he) deva meaning: "O Gods"
ak. devam meaning: "to god" and so on.
inst. devena meaning: "the gods" and so on.
dat. devāya meaning: "the Gods"
ab. devāt meaning "of the Gods"
gen. Devasya meaning: "Papa God"
lok. deve meaning: "in god"

Dualis:

nva Devaux
ida devābhyām
gl devayos

Plural:

nv Devas
A Devan
i devais
da devebhyas
g Devanam
l deveṣu

The basic scheme deklensi suffixes to nouns and properties.

The basic scheme deklensi Sanskrit words for objects and properties are presented below.
This scheme applies to most of the words.
                                  Single           Dualis           Plural
Nominative:                  -s                 -au                -as
                                    (-m)               (-i)                (-i)

Accusative:                  -am                -as               -au
                                    (-m)                (-i)               (-i)

Instrumentalists:           -a               -bhyām          -bhis
Dative:                          -e               -bhyām          -bhyas
Ablative:                       -as             -bhyām          -bhyas
Genitive:                       -os             -as                 -am
Locative:                       -i               -os                 -sU
Vocative:                      -s               -au                 -as
                                     (-)               (-i)                (-i)

Principal-a.

Principal-a (/ ə / or / ɑː /) covers grades largest noun suffix. Usually words ending with short -a androgynous masculine or neuter. Nouns that end in -a long (/ ɑː /) almost always feminine. This class is great because it also includes the suffix -o from Proto-Indo-European.

Sandhi law.

Additionally in Sanskrit obtained what is called the law of sandhi, a phonetic phenomenon in which two different sounds that can be assimilated adjacent.

The formation of compound words.

Of compound words in Sanskrit is very widely used, especially the nouns. These words can be very long (more than 10 words). Nominal compound occurs in several forms, but morphologically they are actually the same. Each noun (or adjective) contained in the form of roots (weak form), with the final element are estimated according to the case.
Some examples of nominal noun or compound including the categories be described below.
1. Avyayibhāva
2. Tatpuruṣa
3. Karmadhāraya
4. Dvigu
5. Dvandva
6. Bahuvrīhi

Sanskrit in some alphabet.

Phrase sanskrit.png
Hopefully sentence Batara Siwa fans feel the language of the Gods. (Kalidasa) in Sanskrit using some derivative Brahmi script.
Thank you for reading this article. Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno. sunarnobambang86@gmail.com
author:
https://plus.google.com/105319704331231770941.
name: Bambang Sunarno.
http://primadonablog.blogspot.com/2015/08/do-you-know-sanskrit.html
DatePublished: August 30, 2015 at 11:05
Tag : Do You Know Sanskrit.
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Friday, 28 August 2015

Do You Know The Secret In A Recipe Doctor.

Doctor's prescription.
Laymen are not going to be able to read the orders given by a doctor in a recipe. But after reading this article will probably add a little bit of your knowledge of what is written in prescription of your doctor. Doctors often prescribe the format of the word "chicken claw". And if we look at the Latin abbreviation is often used to prescribe such as: Sig: I tabs po b.i.d p.c. which means taking 1 tablet 2x daily after meals.

Some secret writings in the prescription :

a.c. : Ante coenam: before meals
a.d / AD: aurio dexter: right ear
a.l. : Aurio Laeva: left ear
U.S. / US: Auris sinister: left ear
a.u. / AU: Auris utro: both ears
aa: anna: under the same dose of the drug to the top
ad ad: up to: up
ad. Lib. : Ad libitum: use as you wish (free)
alt. die. : Alternus die: every other day
alt. h. : Alternus hora: every other hour
amp. : Ampule: 1 dose unit
aq: aqua: water

B.D. : Bis die: 2x a day
b.i.d. : Bis in die: 2x a day
b.i.n. : Bis in noctus: 2x overnight
bis: bis: twice
bol. : Bolus: as much as a single dose

cap: capsule: capsules
cc: cum cibos: with food
cc: cubic Centimetres: cubic centimeters
comp. : Comsitus: diloleskan

d: dies: day
dtd: da tales doses: the dose specified in recipes divided by a number of sections according numero
Diebat. alt. : Diebus alternis: every other day
div. : Divide: split

emp. : Ex modo prescripto: according to instructions
emul. : Emulsio: emulsion
eq. pts. : Equalis partis: equal parts
aq ex: ex aqua: in water

fl. / Fld. : Fluid: liquid

g: g: gram
gr: grain: grain (1 gram = 15 grain)
grad. : Gradatim: gradually
GTT. : Gutta: dripped

h. / Hr. : Hora hour
h.s. : Hora somni: bedtime

i, ii, iii, or iiii: doses: the number of doses
I.D. : Intra-dermal: injected under the skin
I.M. : Intra muscularly: injected into the muscle
IP: intraperitoneal: the injection is injected through the muscles of the abdominal cavity
I.V. : Intravenous: injection for veins
inj. : Injectio: injection
in p. aeq. : Dividiatur in partes aequales: divided into the same section

lin: linimentum: polished
liq: liquor: solution
lot. : Lotio: the liquid drug to be used to skin / not drunk

m, min. : Min: minimal
M.: Misce: mixed
mane: mane: morning
mcg: microgram micro gram
mEq: milli equivalent: milli-equivalents
mg: milligram: milli gram
mist. : Mistura: mixed
Mixt. : Mixtura: mixture
ml: millilitter: milli liter

nebul: nebula: spray
no. : Numero: number
nocte: nocte: night
noct. maneq. : Noct maneque: morning and evening
non rep. : Non repetatur: can not be repeated
NPO: nill per os: no reply by mouth

o.d / OD: oculus dexter: right eye
o.l. : Oculus Laeva: left eye
o.m. : Omni mane: morning
o.n. : Omni nocte: at night
o.s / OS: oculus sinister: left eye
o.u / OU: oculo utro: each eye
opth: opthalmic: in the eye
os: Ossa: bone
otic: otical: on ear

P.C. : Post coenam: after a meal
P.O. : Per os: through the mouth
p.p.a. : Phiala prius agitata: first shaken
p.r: pro rectum: rectal
p.r.n. : Pro re nata: as needed
p.v. : Per vaginum: through the female genital
per: per: through
Pill: pilula: pills
pulv. : Pulvis: powder

q: quaque: every
q._h: quaque .... hora: each .... clock
q.3h: quaque 3 hora: every 3 hours
qad: quaque alternis die: every day different
q.d. / QD: quaque die: every day
qhs: quaque hora somni: every bedtime
q.i.d. : Quarter in die: 4x daily
q.o.d. / Qod: quaque os die: every day different
qq. hh. : Quaque hora: every hour
q.q.h. : Quaque quarter hora: every 4 hours
q.s. : Quantum sufficiat: use in moderation
QAM: quaque ante meridiem: every morning
ql: quantum Libet: as much as desired
q.p. : Quantum placeat: as recommended
QPM: quaque post meridiem: every afternoon
qv: quantum vis: as much as

R /: recipe: take
rep. , REPT. : Repetatur: can be repeated
Rx: radix: a recipe

s: sine: no
S.A. : Secundum artum: use discretion
s.i.d: Semel in die: once a day
s.o.s. : Si opus sit: immediately if needed
SC, Subo, SubQ, subcut: sub cutem: injected under the skin
Sig. / S: signa, signetur: write on the label
SL: sub lingualy: under the tongue
sol. : solutio: solution
ss. : Semis: half / half
stat. : Statim: immediately
supp. : Suppository: a drug that is inserted through the anus
susp. : Suspensio: suspension (substance / solid drug dispersed into a liquid)
syr. : Syrupus: syrup

t.d.s: ter die sumendum: 3x daily
t.i.d. : Ter in die: 3x daily
t.i.w. : Ter in w: 3x a week
tab. : Tabella: tablet
tal. : Talus: like
tbsp. : Tablespoon: tablespoon (15 ml)
tr, Tinc., tinct. : Tinctures: Dlm solution of alcohol
troche: trochiscus: cough
tsp. : Teaspoon: teaspoon (5 ml)

u.d. / Ut dict. : Ut dictum: according to instructions
ung. : Unguentum: ointment
vag. : Vaginum: the female genitals
Thank you for reading this article. Written and posted by Bambang Sunarno. sunarnobambang86@gmail.com
author:
https://plus.google.com/105319704331231770941.
name: Bambang Sunarno.
http://primadonablog.blogspot.com/2015/08/do-you-know-the-secret-in-a-recipe-doctor.html
DatePublished: August 28, 2015 at 13:07
Tag : Do You Know The Secret In A Recipe Doctor.
Code : 7MHPNPADAEFW